Monday, 31 August 2015

Taqlid (Following An Imam Of One Of The 4 Madhhabs) | Fiqh | Ijtihad | Ijma | Qiyas

LAST UPDATE: 16/AUGUST/2016


Taqlid (Following An Imam Of One Of The 4 Madhhabs) | Fiqh | Ijtihad | Ijma | Qiyas


CONTENTS:
PART 1: SHORT VIDEO CLIPS
PART 2: VIDEOS
PART 3: ARTICLES
PART 4: BOOKS


PART 1: SHORT VIDEO CLIPS
ENGLISH VIDEO: Taqleed and following any Madhhab or Imam (Brief) | 17 MINS 40 SECS

URDU VIDEO: hikmat of following different Madhhabs | 12 MINS 30 SECS

SERIES 1:
URDU VIDEO: 1 Taqleed ki zaroorat wa ehmiyat | 10 MINS 53 SECS

URDU VIDEO: 2 Imamo ko manna aur unki Taqleed karna | 6 MINS 16 SECS

URDU VIDEO: 3 Understanding importance of following Imam of Fiqhi Madhhab through examples | 9 MINS 54 SECS

URU VIDEO: 4 Formation of Madhhabs of 4 Imams in light of history of ikhtilaf in hadith and in fatwa of Sahaba(r.a) | 56 MINS 18 SECS

SERIES 2:
URDU VIDEO: 01 Lafz e Taqlid me daleel ka taqaza (Kisi ki Taqlid karna bina daleel jaane) | 4 MINS 46 SECS

URDU VIDEO: 02 Apne Baab Dada ki taqlid karna aur ek etraz ka jawab | 8 MINS 11 SECS

URDU VIDEO: 03 Sahaba(r.a) ka Taqlid karna | 6 MINS 55 SECS

URDU VIDEO: 04 Hadith Samajhne k liye Imam ki zarurat | 10 MINS 59 SECS


SERIES 3:
URDU VIDEO: 001 Ek hi Imam ki Taqlid karna aur Taqlid kabse shuru hui | 48 MINS 18 SECS

URDU VIDEO: 002 Sirf 4 hi Imam q he | 7 MINS 22 SECS

URDU VIDEO: 003 Kya kisi Aiima ne apni Taqlid karne ka huqm diya | 3 MINS 28 SECS

URDU VIDEO: 004 Sahih Hadith maano ya Imam ka qaul | 5 MINS 59 SECS

URDU VIDEO: 005 4 Imam aur 73 Firqe | 1 MIN 42 SECS

URDU VIDEO: 006 Agar Aqide me Taqlid nai ki jaati to Imam Maturidi ki kerne ka kya matlab | 53 SECS

SERIES 4: WHY AHLUS-SUNNAH?
ENGLISH VIDEO: One (out of countless) proof of our(AHLUS SUNNAT WAL JAMAAT) existance in the history of Islam (This is our just one Sanad) | 10 MINS 44 SECS

ENGLISH VIDEO: One Hadith is sufficient to distinguish between AHLUS SUNNAT WAL JAMAH and deviant sects. DEAD END OF ALL FITNA! | 48 MINS 22 SECS

ENGLISH VIDEO: The title 'AHLUS SUNNAT WAL JAMAH' was given to us by Rasool Allah(saw) and refutation of arguments on the Hadith | 56 MINS 52 SECS

ENGLISH VIDEO: The title 'AHLUS SUNNAT WAL JAMAH' was given to us by Rasool Allah(saw) | 25 MINS 26 SECS

URDU VIDEO: Tum kehte ho k mai taqleed ka lafz Qur'an se dikhao, tum tawheed ka lafz Qur'an se dikhao | 59 SECS

URDU VIDEO: Understanding the true meaning of Imam Abu Hanifa(r.a) saying- 'if my fatwa contradicts the Hadith then leave my fatwa and follow Hadith' | 6 MINS 30 SECS

ENGLISH VIDEO: We call ourself as sunni in order to differentiate our creed from deviants creed | 2 MINS 46 SECS

ENGLISH VIDEO: Will 72 out of 73 sects remain in hell eternally | 14 MINS 50 SECS

ENGLISH VIDEO: Will deviants put shirk fatwa upon Imam Bukhari(rah) because he (do taqleed of Imam Shaafi (rah)) was a Shaafi | 1 MIN


AUTHORITY OF “IJMA” IN ISLAM
URDU VIDEO: 004 Lafz ijma aur Classical Imams | 2 MINS 59 SECS

ENGLISH VIDEO: Authority of Ijma (Consensus of Opinion) as the Source of Islamic Law | 28 MINS 57 SECS

ENGLISH VIDEO: Be with the Majority of the Ummah and stay away from Sects | 1 HOUR 2 MINS 14 SECS

URDU VIDEO: Sabse badi jamaat(Biggest Group) hamesha haq per rahegi aur usse jude(combine) rehne ka sabot | 32 MINS 31 SECS
                                      
ENGLISH VIDEO: The Decision of the Majority of the Ummah will be right | 4 MINS 46 SECS

URDU VIDEO: Ummat ki aqsariyat ko Allah kabhi gumrahiyat pe jamah nahi hone dega #Short | 13 MINS 37 SECS

URDU VIDEO: Ummat ki aqsariyat ko Allah kabhi gumrahiyat pe jamah nahi hone dega (Sunni, Khaarji and Shia) | 36 MINS 54 SECS


AUTHORITY OF “QIYAS” IN ISLAM
ENGLISH VIDEO: Authority of Qiyaas (Analogy) as the Source of Islamic Law | 22 MINS 47 SECS

UNDERSTANDING QUR’AN AND HADITH
URDU VIDEO: 001 Hadith jamah karna aur unhe samajhna alag alag kaam he | 56 MINS 39 SECS

URDU VIDEO: 01 Qur'an ka ilm | 9 MINS 12 SECS

URDU VIDEO: 02 Hazrat Umar(r.a) aur Qur'an Samajhna | 3 MINS 56 SECS

URDU VIDEO: 03 Qur'an ka shaari fahem bi ilm ul fiqh ke begair mumkin nahi he | 59 MINS 20 SECS

URDU VIDEO: 04 Qur'an wa Hadith Samajhna | 15 MINS 11 SECS

URDU VIDEO: 014 Quran samajhne k liye Hadith ki zarurat aur Aima ka Hadith wa Sunnat k hujjiyat hone per qaul | 16 MINS 14 SECS

URDU VIDEO: Qur'an kis way me samajhna aasan wa mushqil he | 19 MINS 4 SECS

URDU VIDEO: Qur'an o Hadith ko maanu ya tumne jo Qur'an o Hadith ka maina bayaan kiya vo maanu | 32 MINS 26 SECS

URDU VIDEO: Quran zikr me aasan he aur ilm me mushkil he | 3 MINS 20 SECS

URDU VIDEO: Sahaba(r.a) ka Hadith samajhne ka tareeka | 33 MINS 51 SECS

90%  ARE SUNNIS THROUGHT THE WORLD
URDU VIDEO: Identify The Correct Belief _ Dr Tahir ul Qadri address in Mumbai, India | 28 MINS 15 SECS

URDU VIDEO: Is Sunni Maslak Ahl-e-Sunnat  a Indo Pak Product or have Worldwide Roots | 1 MIN 49 SECS

URDU VIDEO: Should we Follow the Madhab of the People in Saudia Arabia | 9 MINS 2 SECS

URDU VIDEO: Sunni Islam in Makah Madina before 1924Wahhabi Movement took Arabia in 1924 from Ottmon Empire | 10 MINS 12 SECS

URDU VIDEO: sunnis are in majority (90% are sunnis throught the world) | 6 MINS 53 SECS         

URDU VIDEO: The Aqeeda of Ahl-us-Sunnah  present more than 90 in Arab countries | 11 MINS 30 SECS

MISC:
URDU VIDEO: 001 (SahihBukhari) Deen e Islam saara shaqsiyato ka name he #Short | 9 minutes

002 (SahihBukhari) Deen e Islam saara shaqsiyato ka name he #FULL | 26 mins 30 secs

URDU VIDEO: 002 (Tirmidhi Shariff) is etraz ka radd k Aiima e fiqh, hadith ko qubool nai karte | 7 MINS 26 SECS

ENGLISH VIDEO: 007 Two Main Transmitters Out Of Five Of Sahih Bukhari Are HANFIS And Sahih Muslim Is Also Transmitted By MANY HANFI ULEMAS | 8mins 34secs

ENGLISH VIDEO: 009 Imam Bukhari(rah) Learnt All The Books Of Ahlul Rai And Then Started Sitting On The Chair Of Muhaddith | 11min 41secs

URDU VIDEO: 010 Sahih Bukhari ki riwayat bi Hanfi Imamo se hui | 4mins 24secs

URDU VIDEO: 020 Imam E Fiqh Per Sanad K Etbar Se Kiye Jane Wale Etraz Ka Jawab | 4mins 29secs

URDU VIDEO: 029 Fiqh E Hanfi, Shaafi, Maliki, Hanbali Bidat Nai He | 11mins 12secs

URDU VIDEO: 033 ( Sahih Bukhari) Sahib Ul Fiqh ( Aima E Arba) | 16mins 6secs

URDU VIDEO: 047 ( Sahih Bukhari) Ibn Abbas(r.a), Huzur(saw) K Lote Bharte Bharte, Faqih Al Ummat Ban Gaye | 5mins 52secs

URDU VIDEO: Aaj jo koi aik new Madhhab banayega (uun 4 Madhhab k alawa) to vo deen mai fitna karega | 7 MINS 50 SECS

ENGLISH VIDEO: Ahl al-Sunna wa al-Jama'a - Shaykh Dr. Abul Hasan Hussain Ahmed | 12 MINS 42 SECS

URDU VIDEO: Ambiya(a.s) k waris vo ulema hai jo fuqha (Fiqh k Imam) hai by Imam Bukhari(rah) | 8 MINS 15 SECS

ENGLISH VIDEO: Asking Pious People (Islamic Methodology of Learning) | 41 MINS 57 SECS                      

ENGLISH VIDEO: Follow 4 Imams or Qur'an and Sunnah Directly | 18 MINS 51 SECS

URDU VIDEO: Formation of Madhhabs of 4 Imams in light of history of ikhtilaf in hadith and in fatwa of Sahaba(r.a) # short | 17 MINS 49 SECS

URDU VIDEO: Formation of the different Madhhabs of 4 Imams is the COMMANDMENT of QUR'AN and BASHAARAT E MUHAMMADI(saw) | 26 MINS 17 SECS

URDU VIDEO: Formation of the different Madhhabs of 4 Imams is the COMMANDMENT of QUR'AN | 6 MINS 50 SECS

URDU VIDEO: Hadith regarding Imam Abu Hanifa(r.a) | 13 MINS 12 SECS

URDU VIDEO: Hadith regarding Imam Malik(r.a) and Imam Jafar  as Sadiq(r.a) | 5 MINS 5 SECS

URDU VIDEO: Hadith regarding Imam Shafi(r.a) and some info about  Imam Hanbali(r.a) | 2 MINS 35 SECS

ENGLISH VIDEO: Half Baked Scholars have no place in Traditional Islam ! Global Peace & Unity Conference 2010 | 11 MINS 19 SECS

URDU VIDEO: Ibn Tayyima aur unka pura khaandan Hanbali al Madhhab tha aur unke shagird bi taqleed karte the | 9 MINS 40 SECS

ENGLISH VIDEO: Men in Authority and asking Pious People | 27 MINS 28 SECS          

ENGLISH VIDEO: Superiority of Classical Indian Imams and Non Arab Imams | 8 MINS 51 SECS
                                       
ENGLISH VIDEO: Superiority of Non Arab Scholars (Dont Feel Inferior) | 14 MINS 27 SECS
                                                                                                                                                                              
ENGLISH VIDEO: Taqlid done by Sahabah, Salaf, & Khalaf - Shaykh Faadhil Choudhary | 45 MINS 59 SECS

URDU VIDEO: Which door of ijtihad is still open and which is closed | 48 MINS


CORRECTING ZAKIR NAIK ABOUT THE CONCEPT OF TAQLID AND FOLLOWING THE FOUR MADHHABS [THE FOUR SCHOOLS OF LAW]
0065 ZAKIR NAIK CLAIMS- 'FOUR MADHAABS ARE SECTS' #URDU | Duration: 35mins 36secs

0066 ZAKIR NAIK CLAIMS- 'NO MENTION OF AIIMA IN QUR'AN O HADITHS' #URDU #SHORT | Duration: 38mins 9secs

0067 ZAKIR NAIK CLAIMS- 'NO MENTION OF AIIMA IN QUR'AN O HADITHS' #URDU #LONG | Duration: 55mins 39secs

0068 YES ZAKIR NAIK! ALL FOUR MADHAABS ARE ON HAQ #URDU | Duration: 16mins 34secs

0069 ZAKIR NAIK MISQUOTES QAUL OF FOUR AIIMAS OF REJECTING FATWA #ENGLISH | Duration: 10mins 13secs

0070 ZAKIR NAIK MISQUOTES QAUL OF FOUR AIIMAS OF REJECTING FATWA #URDU | Duration: 10mins 3secs

0071 ZAKIR NAIK, TAQLID AND DOOR OF IJTIHAD #URDU | Duration: 1hour 3mins 5secs

0072 ZAKIR NAIK KINDLY LEARN THE HISTORY OF FOUR MADHAABS #URDU #SHORT | Duration: 21mins 55secs

0073 ZAKIR NAIK KINDLY LEARN THE HISTORY OF FOUR MADHAABS #URDU #LONG | Duration: 1hour 24 secs

0074 ZAKIR NAIK CLAIMS- 'MUQALLIDANA ZEHNIYAT NE NUQSAAN PAUHCHAYA' #URDU | Duration: 30mins 3secs

0075 CONFUSED ZAKIR NAIK ABOUT TITLE 'AHLUS SUNNAH' #ENGLISH #SHORT | Duration: 32mins 14secs

0076 CONFUSED ZAKIR NAIK ABOUT TITLE 'AHLUS SUNNAH' #ENGLISH #LONG | Duration: 1hour 3mins 40secs


CORRECTING ZAKIR NAIK ABOUT THE LEGALITY OF IJMA  AS ONE OF THE SOURCES OF ISLAMIC JURISPRUDENCE
0077 ZAKIR NAIK HIDED THE HADITH ABOUT THE IJMA OF THE UMMAH #ENGLISH #SHORT | Duration: 16mins 18secs

0078 ZAKIR NAIK HIDED THE HADITH ABOUT THE IJMA OF THE UMMAH #ENGLISH #LONG | Duration: 53mins 56secs

PART 23: CORRECTING ZAKIR NAIK ABOUT  IMAM ABU HANIFA(R.A)
0079 CORRECTING ZAKIR NAIK ABOUT BIRTH DATE OF IMAM ABU HANIFA(RA) #URDU | Duration: 6mins 37secs

0080 ZAKIR NAIK LEARN IT THAT IMAM ABU HANIFA(RA) IS IMAM E HADITH TOO #ENGLISH | Duration: 47mins 37secs

0081 ZAKIR NAIK LEARN IT THAT IMAM ABU HANIFA(RA) IS IMAM E HADITH TOO #URDU | Duration: 57mins 17secs

0082 ZAKIR NAIK SAID RADIYALLAHU TAALA ANHU FOR YAZEED AND JUST RAHIMAHULLAH FOR IMAM ABU HANIFA(R.A)! DOUBLE STANDARDS! #URDU | Duration: 27mins 42secs

0083 ZAKIR NAIK, EVEN NARRATORS OF AL-BUKHARI WERE HANFI #ENGLISH | Duration: 11mins 25secs

0084 ZAKIR NAIK, EVEN NARRATORS OF AL-BUKHARI WERE HANFI #URDU | Duration: 8mins 7secs


PART 2: VIDEOS
BY DR. TAHIR UL QADRI
URDU VIDEO: 0738 Fiqah ijtahad aour taqleed 1 | 2 HOURS 36 MINS

URDU VIDEO: 0739 Fiqah ijtahad aour taqleed 2 | 4 HOURS 6 MINS

URDU VIDEO: 0740 Fiqah Ijtahad aour taqleed 3 | 2 HOURS 25 MINS

URDU VIDEO: 0741 Fiqah ijtahad aour taqleed 4 | 2 HOURS 3 MINS

URDU VIDEO: Fiqah, Ijtihad awr Taqlid (Nishist 5) by Shaykh ul Islam Dr. Muhammad Tahir ul Qadri | 2 HOURS 56 MINS

URDU VIDEO: Fiqh ki Zaroorat o Ahmiyyat (vol. 1) | 1 HOUR 49 MINS

URDU VIDEO: Islami Asool-e-Fiqah ka Falsafa by Shaykh-ul-Islam Dr Muhammad Tahir-ul-Qadri | 1 HOUR 52 MINS

ENGLISH VIDEO: Islamic Law in the World Today (with Question answer Session) | 1 HOUR 42 MINS

URDU VIDEO: Ittehad-e-Ummat aur Seerat-e-Nabvi S.A.W | 2 HOURS 2 MINS

BY OTHER SCHOLARS
URDU VIDEO: At Taqleed Full Speech by Farooque Khan Razvi Sahab| 2 HOURS 11 MINS

ENGLISH VIDEO: Why Ahlus Sunnah  ᴴᴰ  Allama PIr Saqib Shaami Sahib  Stoke  2014 | 2 HOURS 23 MINS

ENGLISH VIDEO: Classical definition of Ahle Sunnah Wa'l Jama'ah -- Shaykh Hamza Yusuf | 22 KINS 11 SECS

ENGLISH VIDEO: ᴴᴰ Dr Hafiz Athar Hussain Al Azhari _ Lecture - Taqleed_ Understanding the 4 Madhabs | 1 HOUR 18 MINS

ENGLISH VIDEO: Taqlid, Following Madhab (School of Islamic Law) - Shaykh Atabek | 1 HOUR

ENGLISH VIDEO: The Four Schools or follow Quran & Sunnah directly by Sheikh Atabek Nasafi | 1 HOUR 14 MINS

URDU VIDEO: Aaima e Araba by Mufti Dr Muhammad Ashraf Asif Jalali sahib | 1 HOUR

URDU VIDEO: Dr Ashraf Asif Jalali_Den Mein Ra'aey Aur Taqleed Ki Gunjaish 1.avi | 1 HOUR 44 MINS

URDU VIDEO: Taqleed Asif Ashraf jalali | 1 HOUR 41 MINS

URDU VIDEO: Tark e taqleed ki taba karian | 1 HOUR 2 MINS


PART 3: ARTICLES                                  
XVIII. QUESTIONS ON IJMA` (CONSENSUS), TAQLID (FOLLOWING QUALIFIED OPINION), AND IKHTILAF AL-FUQAHA' (DIFFERENCES OF THE JURISTS)

The Correct Meaning of the Statement “When a Hadīth Is Authentic, It Is My Opinion”

Shaykh Murabtal Haaj’s Fatwa on Following One of the Four Accepted Madhhabs

The Problem of Anti-Madhhabism

WHAT IS A MADHHAB? WHY IS IT NECESSARY TO FOLLOW ONE? Q-News Interview, ? Nuh Ha Mim Keller 1995

Why Does One have to follow a madhhab? Debate Between Muhammad Sa'id al-Buti and a Leading Salafi Teacher (c) Translated by Nuh Ha Mim Keller 1995


Who are the Ahlus Sunnah wal Jamaah (Majority Muslims)?

Defination of Ahlus sunnah [sawad us azam ] according to Sahih hadiths

Concept of a Mujadad [ mujadid, revivalist] in Islam

Taqleed – Following the Four Imams | From Ja Al Haq

QURANIC SURAH WITH TAFSEERAT IN EVIDENCE OF TAQLEED

Taqleed , following one of four schools of jurisprudence of Ahlus sunnah is wajib for laymen

An answer to Dr. Zakir Naik's answer regarding Schools of thought

Breaking of wudu by touching females

AHADITH ON INTERPRETING THE HOLY QUR'AN WITHOUT SOUND KNOWLEDGE

Islamic Legal Maxim

Usul al-fiqh: Meaning and History

The History and Sources of Islamic Law

Juristic Differences in Sharia

Ikhtilaf - (differences) among the Madhhabs in Islam Differences of Opinion are a Mercy



PART 4: BOOKS
URDU BOOK: Hidayat ul Tareeq fi beyan al taqleed wal tahqeeq by Syed Didar Ali Shah | Pages: 220

URDU BOOK: Fiqh Al Faqeeh By Abu Yusuf Muhammad Shariif | Pages: 401

ENGLISH BOOK: Ethics of Disagreement in Islam | Pages: 134

URDU BOOK: Hujjiyat e Fiqa By Allama Anas Raza Qadri | Pages: 320

URDU BOOK: Ijtihad aur Taqlid | Pages: 88

URDU BOOK: Intesarul Haq By Mufti Irshad Husain Rampuri | Pages: 729
IT IS VERY VERY AMAZING BOOK ON THIS SUBJECT

URDU BOOK: Jam E Noor Ijtihad Wa Taqleed | Pages: 266
Nice compilation

URDU BOOK: Masala e Taqleed By Maulana Ghulam Rasool Naqshbandi Barkati | Pages: 76

URDU BOOK: Taqlid e Aiima by Faiz ahmad owaisi | Pages: 88

URDU BOOK: Taqlid Shaqsi Zaruri he  | Pages: 122

URDU BOOK: Al-fadl-al-mawhibi (Imam Abu Hanifa(r.a) k is qaul k maine me jb koi hadith sehat ko pauhche to vohi mera mazhab he) By Imam Ala Hadhrat | Pages: 29

URDU BOOK: Atayib as-sayyib By Imam Ala Hadhrat | Pages: 41

URDU BOOK: Ajla Al iylam (is amr ki tehqiq Aziim ka fatwe hamesha qaul e imam per hota he) By Imam Ala Hadhrat | Pages: 137

URDU BOOK: An Nayyirah Ash Shihabiyy By Imam Ala Hadhrat | Pages: 17

URDU BOOK: Sam Same Hadeed By Imam Ala Hadhrat | Pages: 28

URDU BOOK: Ulma aur Shariyat ki afzaliyat per Ahle Marifat k kalaam By Imam Ala Hadhrat |Pages: 64

URDU BOOK: Isbat Taqleed-e-Sharayee by Muhammad Abdul Rehman Muhibbi | Pages: 48

ENGLISH BOOK: Islamic Fiqh Academy Fatwa on Taqlid and its Detractors in this age | Pages: 16

URDU BOOK: Khasiyat ghair muqaledeen Maa karishma e Taqleed | Pages: 18

ENGLISH BOOK: On Taqlid By Imam Taqiyuddin al-Subki | Pages: 2

ENGLISH BOOK: Taqleed and Imam Azam | Pages: 19

ENGLISH BOOK: Taqlid Trusting a Mujtahid By Shaykh Tahir Mahmood Kiani | Pages: 12

URDU BOOK: Taqlid-e-Aaemmah Mujtahideen | Pages: 18

URDU BOOK: Tark e Taqlid aur uski tabahkariye | Pages: 33

ENGLISH BOOK: The Companions Are The Stars Of Guidance | Pages: 65
                                            
ENGLISH BOOK: THE DANGER OF ANTI-MADH’HAB | Pages: 17

ENGLISH BOOK: The Obligation Of Adhering To A Single Madhhab In All Its Rulings | Pages: 30


INSHA’ALLAH IN FUTURE I WILL ADD MORE INFO ON IT
MAY ALLAH(SWT) GRANT US THE DEEDAR E MUSTAFA(PEACE BE UPON HIM) BA HALT E BEDARI! AMIIN!

COMPILED BY: MUHAMMAD REHAN SIDDIQUI
ISLAMIC SITE: http://www.mrehan786.blogspot.com    











Taqlid in the light of Qur’an and Hadith:

Introduction

Note: There is a sect spread around the world that spreads terrorism. They also reject taqlid, hence it is necessary to precisely name them. The sect is called Ghayr Muqalid/Salafi/Wahabi.

Muslims and their scholars in majority approve Taqlid, whereas the extremist sect as mentioned above is strongly against this concept although there is Ijma  (consensus) of mainstream scholars over it.

It is a fact that terrorism always emerges from Wahabism throughout the world. The terrorists like ISIS, Al-Qaeeda, and company belong to same extremist sect. The reason why they are prone to terrorism and killing Muslims in Muslim countries is because they have abandoned Taqlid. They reach conclusions by reading Qur’an and Hadith directly without understanding them from mainstream scholars. One example of their exploitation of Qur’an and Hadith is taking wrong meanings of Jihad although Qital can only be against disbelievers who have waged war on us. There is no such thing as Jihad on Muslims living in Syria/Iraq or elsewhere even if the leaders are corrupt or Shi’ite.  

Similarly they reach wrong conclusions on variety of fiqh issues and start blaming other Muslims, for example they propagate that Raful Yaddain in ruku and rising from it is established whereas rejection of it is Bidah, they also say that Qir’at khalf Imam is necessary and whosoever does not do so then his prayer is invalid, they claim that hands should be tied on chest (which is actually Bidah and is not proven from a single authentic hadith, plus it is not a position of any of the 4 schools). Please remember that contrary to their claims is proven directly from Qur’an and Sunnah too, hence it establishes that all 4 schools are correct and are like streams that reach the same ocean.

These are some of the examples we have given although we can give many on fiqhi issues.

Please note that Scholars are those who approve taqlid and majority of scholars have established beyond doubt that Ahlus Sunnah wa’l Jamm’ah are only

1.     Ash’ari/Maturidi in Aqeeda i.e. those who do not have absurd beliefs on Sifaat of Allah or Mutashabihaat verses such as Istawa, Nazul, hand of Allah, Shin of Allah and etc...

2.     Those who follow one of the four schools of jurisprudence (i.e. Hanafi, Shafi’i, Hanbali, or Maliki) as accepted by Jamiya al-Azhar and overwhelming majority scholars belonging to Ahlus Sunnah (as called barelvis by Wahabis) and deobandi scholars.

3.     Those who follow Tassawuf (peaceful, spiritual, and the one and only true teachings of Islam)

Proofs from Qur’an and Sunnah


Qur’an states:

Ask the people of Remembrance if you do not know [an-Nahl: 43].

As it is clear from Qur’an that if we do not know something then we should ask the ahl al dhikr (i.e. scholars).  Taqlid for laymen in Furu’ is necessary. Hence this verse establishes taqlid beyond doubt because Sunni scholars in unanimity (Ijma) prescribe Taqlid.

Let us now see an authentic hadith in regards to doing Taqlid:

Sahih Muslim Hadith # 159

عَنْ تَمِيمٍ الدَّارِيِّ ، أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ قَالَ: «الدِّينُ النَّصِيحَةُ» قُلْنَا: لِمَنْ؟ قَالَ: «لله وَلِكِتَابِهِ وَلِرَسُولِهِ وَلأَئِمَّةِ الْمُسْلِمِينَ وَعَامَّتِهِمْ».

Translation: It is narrated on the authority of Tamim ad-Dari that the Prophet (Peace be upon him) said: The religion is a name of well-wishing. The Sahaba asked: for whom? The Prophet (Peace be upon him) replied: For Allah, His Book, His Apostle, and the "IMAMS OF MUSLIMS" and ordinary Muslims . [Sahih Muslim Hadith # 159]

The best commentator of Sahih Muslim amongst classical scholars i.e. Imam an-Nawawi (rah) said:

وحكاه أيضاً الخطابي ثم قال: وقد يتأول ذلك على الأئمة الذين هم علماء الدين، وأن من نصيحتهم قبول ما رووه، وتقليدهم في الأحكام، وإحسان الظن بهم.

Translation: In this regard the words of wisdom are narrated from al-Khatabi (rah) who said: (This hadith) includes those "IMAMS" who are scholars of Deen, and the meaning of well wishing for scholars is to accept their hadiths and "TO DO TAQLID OF THEM IN RULINGS" and to have good opinion of them [Sharh Sahih Muslim by an-Nawawi (2/33)]

Hence Qur’an and Sunnah as understood from Ahl al Dhikr establish Taqlid. The Wahabis not only defame great contemporary Sunni scholars but they even cater Bughz for great Salaf such as Imam al Adham Abu Hanifa (Rahimahullah). The Wahabis are known for their innate hatred for this great Tabi’i Imam.

We often come across Ghayr Muqalideen/Wahabis saying that Imam ash-Shafi'i (rah) and other Imams said that When hadith is proven Sahih then that is my Madhab or when you find a Sahih hadith opposing my opinion then take the hadith and throw away my qawl etc...

From such quotes of great scholars the Ghayr Muqalideen try to misguide ordinary Muslims that this wording applies on all people whether laymen i.e. even if a nincompoop like Wahabi sees some sahih hadith and starts acting "ON DHAHIR (APPARENT)" meaning of it then It is fine to reject the Qawl of Imam.

This is the biggest daleel rather Dajl which Wahabis use in order to fool innocent people. Now here is solid refutation of Wahabis from Imam an-Nawawi (rah)

Explaining this quote from Imam ash-Shafi'i (rah) Imam al-Nawawi (rah) said:


ما نقل عن الشافعي فيه قول على وفق الحديث: * وهذا الذى قاله الشافعي ليس معناه ان كل أحد رأى حديثا صحيحا قال هذا مذهب الشافعي وعمل بظاهره: وانما هذا فيمن له رتبة الاجتهاد في المذهب على ما تقدم من صفته أو قريب منه: وشرطه أن يغلب على ظنه أن الشافعي رحمه الله لم يقف على هذا الحديث أو لم يعلم صحته: وهذا انما يكون بعد مطالعة كتب الشافعي كلها ونحوها من كتب أصحابه الآخذين عنه وما أشبهها وهذا شرط صعب قل من ينصف به: وانما اشترطوا ما ذكرنا لان الشافعي رحمه الله ترك العمل بظاهر أحاديث كثيرة رآها وعلمها لكن قام الدليل عنده على طعن فيها أو نسخها أو تخصيصها أو تأويلها أو نحو ذلك: قال الشيخ أبو عمرو رحمه الله ليس العمل بظاهر ما قاله الشافعي بالهين فليس كل فقيه يسوغ له أن يستقل بالعمل بما يراه حجة من الحديث وفيمن سلك هذا المسلك من الشافعيين من عمل بحديث تركه الشافعي رحمه الله عمدا مع علمه بصحته لمانع اطلع عليه وخفى على غيره كابى الوليد موسى بن ابي الجارود ممن صحب الشافعي قال صح حديث افطر الحاجم والمحجوم فأقول قال الشافعي افطر الحاجم والمحجوم فردوا ذلك على ابى الوليد لان الشافعي تركه مع علمه بصحته لكونه منسوخا عنده وبين الشافعي نسخه واستدل عليه وستراه في كتاب الصيام ان شاء الله تعالى: وقد قدمنا عن ابن خزيمة انه قال لا أعلم سنة لرسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم في الحلال والحرام لم يودعها الشافعي كتبه وجلالة ابن خزيمة وامامته في الحديث والفقه ومعرفته بنصوص الشافعي بالمحل المعروف: قال الشيخ أبو عمرو فمن وجد من الشافعية حديثا يخالف مذهبه نظران كملت آلات الاجتهاد فيه مطلقا: أو في ذلك الباب أو المسألة كان له الاستقلال بالعمل به وان لم يكن وشق عليه مخالفة الحديث بعد ان بحث فلم يجد لمخالفته عنه جوابا شافيا فله العمل به ان كان عمل به امام مستقل غير الشافعي ويكون هذا عذرا له في ترك مذهب امامه هنا وهذا الذى قاله حسن متعين والله أعلم



Translation: What Imam al-Shafi’i said: My Madhab is that which conforms to the hadith, this does not mean that everyone who sees a Sahih hadith should say “This is the madhhab of al-Shāfiʿī,” applying the purely external or apparent meaning of his statement. What he said most certainly applies only to such a person who has the rank of Ijtihad in the madhhab. It is a condition for such a person that he be firmly convinced that either Imām Al-Shāfiʿī was unaware of this adīth or he was unaware of its authenticity. And this is possible only after having researched all the books of al-Shāfiʿī and other similar books of the companions of al-Shāfiʿī, those who took knowledge from him and others similar to them.

This is indeed a difficult condition to fulfill. Few are those who measure up to this standard in our times [that is al-Nawawī’s times, a fortiori ours; amongst those who lived in Al-Nawawī’s century were al-Fakhr al-Dīn al-Rāzī, ibn al-Șalāh, al-Mundhiri, ibn ʿAbdus-Salām, Al-Qurubī, ibn al-Qattan, al-iyāʼ al-Maqdisī, ibn Qudāmah, and ibn Daqiq al-ʿĪd!]. What we have explained has been made conditional because Imām Al-Shāfiʿī had abandoned acting purely on the external meaning of many proofs for criticism of the adīth or its abrogation or specific circumstances or interpretation and so forth. Shaykh Abū ʿAmr [ibn al-Șalāh] said, ‘It is no trivial matter to act according to the literal meaning of what Imām al-Shāfiʿī said. For it is impermissible for every faqīh – let alone an ordinary person (ʿāmmī) – to act independently with what he takes to be a proof from the adīth...Therefore, any Shāfiʿī that finds a hadith that contradicts his school must examine whether he is absolutely accomplished in all the disciplines of ijtihād, or in that particular topic, or specific question. [If he is] then he has the right to apply it independently...’”

[Al-Nawawi, Al-Majmuʿ Shar Al-Muhadhdhab (1:64) ]

What an amazing explanation by Imam an-Nawawi (Rahimahullah).

Points to note from this explanation are:

1.     Wahabis misuse the sayings of Imams that their Madhab is only which conforms to hadith. The Wahabis do this to deceive ordinary Muslims.
2.     Imam an-Nawawi (rah) proved that such sayings are for scholars who have reached the stage of ijtihad (i.e. those who can derive rulings directly, not the laymen)
3.     To follow Imam ash-Shafi’I’s statement one has to study almost all the books which is near to impossible for a scholar let alone a layman.
4.     There were very few who were capable of such ijtihad even during an-Nawawi’s time. The great scholars during his times were al-Fakhr al-Dīn al-Razi, ibn al-Salah, al-Mundhiri, ibn ʿAbdus-Salam, Al-Qurtubi, ibn al-Qattan, Ibn Qudamah, ibn Daqiq al-ʿĪd and others.
5.     Laymen cannot distinguish between Nasikh and Mansookh (both in Qur’an and Hadith), nor can they know which hadith is to be acted upon and which is weak, and so on.
6.     An-Nawawi (rah) called it impermissible for even fuqaha let alone laymen to act independently on what they derive from external meaning of hadith.


Shah Waliullah Muhadith Dehalvi (rah) who is highly revered by Wahabiyoon too, he said about such sayings:

انمايتم فيمن له ضرب من الاجتهاد ولو فى مسئله واحدة وفيمن ظهر عليه ظهورا بينا ان النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم امر بكزا ونهى عن كزا وانه ليس بمنسوخ اما بان يتبع الاحاديث واقوال المخالف والموافق فى المسئلة اوبان يرى جما غفيرا من المتبحرين فى العلم يزهبون اليه ويرى المخالف له لايحتج الا بقياس اواستنباط اونحو زلك فحينئز لا سبب لمخالفة حديث النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم الا نفاق خفى او حمق جلى
-
Translation:
These words apply to him who has ability to make Ijtihad of some kind and he knows that which the Prophet (peace be upon him) allowed and what he disallowed, and also that this saying is not abrogated. Either he has examined all ahadith and words of both who disagree and who agree and concluded that there is no evidence of its abrogation or he has observed a large number of learned Ulama (Scholars) conducting themselves on it. And he is assured that the Imam who disagrees with the Hadith, has no evidence except verdicts and deductions. In such cases, disagreement with the Prophet's (peace be upon him) Hadith is either because of concealed hypocrisy or open foolishness. nothing else. [Hujat ul Baligah Volume 001, Page No. 264]


Qur’an states at another place:

So, ask the "Ahlal-Dhikr (People of knowledge/Fuqaha)" if you do not know. [Surah al-Anbiya (21), Verse # 7]

One of the top most and leading "JURISTIC" Tafsir of Qur'an i.e. Al-Jami` li-ahkam al-Qur’an, by the legendary Ash'ari scholar Imam al-Qurtubi (rah), states after this verse:

لم يختلف العلماء أن العامة عليها تقليد علمائها، وأنهم المراد بقول الله عز وجل: {وَمَآ أَرْسَلْنَا مِن قَبْلِكَ إِلا رِجَالا نُّوحِىۤ إِلَيْهِمْۚ فسْـَٔلُوۤا أَهْلَ ٱلذِّكْرِ إِن كُنتُمْ لا تَعْلَمُونَ} (النحل: 43) وأجمعوا على أن الأعمى لا بدّ له من تقليد غيره ممن يثق بميزه بالقبلة إذا أشكلت عليه؛ فكذلك من لا علم له ولا بصر بمعنى ما يدين به لا بد له من تقليد عالمه، وكذلك لم يختلف العلماء أن العامة لا يجوز لها الفتيا؛ لجهلها بالمعاني التي منها يجوز التحليل والتحريم

Translation: The scholars did not disagree that ordinary people (العامة) should do Taqlid (تقليد) of their scholars and this is what is meant in the Qawl of Allah azza Wajjal when He said: Ask the people of Remembrance if you do not know [an-Nahl: 43]. And the scholars by consensus (وأجمعوا) stated that it is necessary (لا بدّ) for he who is unable to see to do Taqlid of someone else who will tell him of the direction of the Qiblah, if it becomes difficult for him. Similarly, one who does not possess knowledge or insight of what the Deen teaches, then it is necessary (laa budda) for him to do Taqlid of that scholar who does. [Tafsir al-Qurtubi (11/181)]

Qur’an states: When there comes to them some matter touching (Public) safety or fear, they divulge it. If they had only referred it to the Apostle, or to those charged with authority among them, the proper investigators would have Tested it from them (direct). Were it not for the Grace and Mercy of God unto you, all but a few of you would have fallen into the clutches of Satan" (Qur'an 4:83), 


alladhina yastanbitunahu minhum", refers to those possessing the capacity to draw inferences directly from the evidence, which is called in Arabic istinbat

Imam Fakhr ud-din al-Razi said: Allah has commanded those morally responsible to refer actual facts to someone who can infer (yastanbitu) the legal ruling concerning them" (Tafsir al-Fakhr al-Razi, 10.205).

He also said:

أن العامي يجب عليه تقليد العلماء في أحكام الحوادث

Translation: It is necessary (Wajib) for a layman to do Taqlid of Ulama in new matters [Tafsir al-Kabeer under 4:83]

These along with other verses and hadiths oblige the believer who is not at the level of istinbat or directly deriving rulings from the Qur'an and hadith is to ask and follow someone in such rulings who is at this level

A mujtahid reaches an independent judgment as to whether a particular hadith is truly from the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) through his own knowledge of hadith narrators and the sciences of hadith, and not from taqlid or "following the opinion of another hadith scholar."

Qur’an states:


كَذَلِكَ إِنَّمَا يَخْشَى اللَّهَ مِنْ عِبَادِهِ الْعُلَمَاءُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزِيزٌ غَفُورٌ

..Those truly fear Allah, among His Servants, who have knowledge (Al-Ulama): for Allah is Exalted in Might, Oft-Forgiving (35:28)

This verse outlines that only Ulama truly fear Allah. Now when it has been established above that mainstream Ahlus Sunnah and classical scholars told us to uphold Taqlid, then this verse proves that we should follow these “TRULY GOD FEARING SCHOLARS”

Qur’an states:

Allah will rise up, to (suitable) ranks (and degrees), those of you who believe and who have been granted (mystic) Knowledge. And Allah is well-acquainted with all ye do (Yusuf Ali: 58:11)

Now after having understood this, let us give some examples from Hadith which prove that deriving direct rulings from Hadiths can misguide, and the only way is to do taqlid.

Hadith # 1

Vol. 1, Book 10, Hadith 548 : (Sahih Bukhari)

Narrated Abu Bakr bin Abi Musa:
My father said, "Allah's Messenger () said, 'Whoever prays the two cool prayers (`Asr and Fajr) will go to Paradise.' "

A layman can derive from this hadith that out of all 5 prayers one who prays fajr and Asr only will go to paradise.

Hadith # 2

In Sahih Bukhari there are many hadiths which can utterly misguide people until or unless they are understood from scholars and not self study. Remember the Qur’anite sect and Parvaize sect always emerged due to abandoning Taqlid. Self study like Nasir ud-Dhalalah Albani did, made him rebel against this rightful Hanafi father.

Here is one hadith from Sahih Bukhari which can put the Iman of many beginners of knowledge at stakes:

It states: …But after a few days Waraqa died and the Divine Inspiration was also paused for a while and the Prophet became so sad as we have heard that he intended several times to throw himself from the tops of high mountains and every time he went up the top of a mountain in order to throw himself down, Gabriel would appear before him and say, "O Muhammad! You are indeed Allah's Apostle in truth" whereupon his heart would become quiet and he would calm down and would return home. And whenever the period of the coming of the inspiration used to become long, he would do as before, but when he used to reach the top of a mountain, Gabriel would appear before him and say to him what he had said before.  [Volumn 009, Book 087, Hadith Number 111: Sahih Bukhari]

This hadith is misused by anti Islamic propagandists and they say that our Prophet (Peace be upon him) tried to commit suicide (Naudhobillah). The part of hadith starting from “AS WE HAVE HEARD” makes it doubtful because the hadith is narrated by Sayyidah Aisha (RA) and it was not possible for her to be narrating these extra words, these additional words are not present in other hadiths which talk about the same incident, hence these words will be counted as Idraj and Shadh (odd).

The Wahabis do not realize that even hadiths in Bukhari could have Idraj from narrators or Shadhohat (oddities) which are rejected.

Here is another hadith which has created havoc between Ahlus Sunnah and Shii’ites

Hadith # 3

Vol. 5, Book 59, Hadith 546: (Sahih Bukhari)

Narrated by ‘Aisha:… Abu Bakr said, "Allah's Messenger () said, "Our property is not inherited. Whatever we leave, is Sadaqa, but the family of (the Prophet) Muhammad can eat of this property.' By Allah, I will not make any change in the state of the Sadaqa of Allah's Messenger () and will leave it as it was during the lifetime of Allah's Messenger (), and will dispose of it as Allah's Messenger () used to do." So Abu Bakr refused to give anything of that to Fatima. So she became angry with Abu Bakr and kept away from him, and did not talk to him till she died. She remained alive for six months after the death of the Prophet. When she died, her husband `Ali, buried her at night without informing Abu Bakr and he said the funeral prayer by himself…

-         End Quote

This hadith has confused many people, rather shia-sunni divide on the issue of Fadak is based on this hadith. A layman who considers every word of Bukhari to be authentic (as wahabis want us to believe) will come to conclusion that Sayyidah Fatima (RA) died while being angry with Sayyidna Abu Bakr (RA). Now there is a big problem if someone comes to this conclusion because another hadith states:

Vol. 5, Book 57, Hadith 61: (Sahih Bukhari)

Narrated Al-Miswar bin Makhrama:
Allah's Messenger () said, "Fatima is a part of me, and he who makes her angry, makes me angry."

Hence Fatima (RA) becoming angry with Abu Bakt (RA) would put Abu Bakr (RA) in bad light.

The answer to the former hadith we showed is that it has “IDRAJ” of Ibn Shihab al Zuhri. Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri was renowned for adding his own words in ahadith (i.e. doing Idraj). Muhaditheen of past had refuted him and asked him to clarify whenever he makes Idraj (which he has not done in this hadith).

All these hadiths mentioning anger of Sayyidah Fatima with Abu Bakr have only come from Ibn Shihab al Zuhri, hence the Idraj is rejected.

Point remains that laymen can get utterly misguided by reading Bukhari/Muslim or hadiths directly. There are many examples which can be given but due to brevity issue these would suffice.


Hadith # 4

Vol. 7, Book 62, Hadith 32 : (Sahih Bukhari)

Narrated Sahl bin Sa`d:
Allah's Messenger () said, "If at all there is bad omen, it is in the horse, the woman, and the house."

Now this hadith can utterly misguide a person and it also gives bad image about Islam that bad omen is found in women.

Now a layman who has not studied hadith literature in detail will come to final conclusion after reading this hadith that women have bad omen. However there are other hadiths which clarify that women do not contain bad omen.

Musnad of Ahmad ibn Hanbal, 6/246

Abu-Hassan reports that two people came to Aishah and said to her that Abu Hurayrah narrates that the Prophet used to say that bad luck is to be found only in women, horses and houses. At this Aishah replied: By the God who revealed the Qur’an to the Prophet ! The Prophet never said this; what he did say was that the People of the Jahilliyyah hold this opinion.

It also states in Sunnah Ibn Majah:

It was narrated from Hakim bin Mu'awiyah that his paternal uncle Mikhmar bin Mu'awiyah said: "I heard the Messenger of Allah say: 'Do not believe in omens, and good fortune is only to be found in three things: A woman, a horse and a house."' [Book 9, Hadith 2070]

Hence the above 2 hadiths prove contrary to the hadith in Bukhari.

Hadith # 5

The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) said, "Whoever prays the dawn prayer (fajr) in a group and then sits and does dhikr until the sun rises, then prays two rak‘as, shall have the like of the reward of a hajj and an ‘umra." Anas said, "The Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) said: ‘Completely, completely, completely’" (Tirmidhi, 2/481). 

A layman can derive from this hadith that praying fajr in group, then sitting, doing dhikr till sun rises, then praying 2 rakahs will lift the obligation of hajj as he has received full reward of it.

Wahabis might call this hadith weak. Before we prove authenticity of this hadith we need to remember that laymen cannot know about authenticity or weakness of any report by themselves, hence they are left with no option but to do Taqlid.

Nasir ud-Dhalalah al-Albani has declared this Hadith as “Hasan” [Saheeh Tirmidhi no. 586]

Been Baaz Wahabi said: This hadeeth has some isnaads with which there is nothing wrong, thus it is regarded as hasan li ghayrihi (hasan because of corroborating evidence) [Fataawa Ibn Baaz (25/171)]

There are other hadiths like this too, for example:

It is narrated on the authority of Hadhrat ‘Abdullah bin ‘Abbas (May Allah be well pleased with them) that the Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) said:  Whichever obedient son (or daughter) looks at his parents with love, then Allah Most High grants the reward of 1 accepted Hajj in lieu of every glance.  The Companions asked:  If he does so 100 times in a single day, will he be given the reward of 100 accepted Hajj? The Holy Prophet (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) said:  Allah is great and benevolent beyond all bounds.  (Shua’bul Iman, Hadith No. 7611; Kanz Ul ‘Ummal, Hadith No. 45535; Zujajatul Masabeeh, Vol. 4, Pg. No. 88)

This hadith is also weak although it has come from 3 different turaq all of which are weak (but they prove asl for it). We have intentionally showed it because a layman who cannot distinguish between Sahih and weak narrations can start acting upon such hadiths, hence it is necessary to do taqlid as laymen do not know Ilm ur Rijaal.

This concept of receiving Thawab of Hajj is proven from other authentic hadiths too, for example this following hadith is “STRONG”

عن أنس رضي الله عنه قال أتى رجلٌ رسولَ الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فقال إني أشتهي الجهاد ولا أقدر عليه قال هل بقي مِن والديك أحدٌ قال أمي قال فاَبْلِ الله في برها فإذا فعلت ذلك فأنت حاج ومعتمر ومجاهد.

Anas  (RA) narrated that a man came to the Prophet (Peace and Blessings be upon him) and said: I want to participate in Jihad, but I am no capable of it. The Prophet (Peace and Blessings be upon him) asked if any of his parents were alive? He said: Yes, my mother is alive.” The Prophet said: Show Allah how you serve her. If you do it (properly) you shall be like a “HAJI”, one doing Umra and a Mujahid. [Musnad Abu Ya’la, Hadith # 2760]

This hadith has strong chain of narrators [See Targheeb 3/315]


Now a layman who is reading Sahih Tirmidhi with Takhreej of Albani or the 2nd and 3rd hadiths which we showed, might come to conclusion that duty of Hajj has been lifted for him as the hadith proves that one will get Thawab of “ACCEPTED” Hajj or shall become a Haji without participating in it.  

Hadith # 6 (This proves that unqualified people who are not fuqaha can cause serious bad consiquences)

Jabir said: We set out on a journey. One of our people was hurt by a stone, that injured his head. He then had a sexual dream. He asked his fellow travelers: Do you find a concession for me to perform tayammum? They said: We do not find any concession for you while you can use water. He took a bath and died. When we came to the Prophet (), the incident was reported to him. He said: They killed him, may Allah kill them! Could they not ask when they did not know? The cure for ignorance is inquiry. It was enough for him to perform tayammum and to pour some drops of water or bind a bandage over the wound (the narrator Musa was doubtful); then he should have wiped over it and washed the rest of his body. [Sunnan Abu Dawud : Book 1, Hadith 336]

This hadith proves that deriving rulings directly without inquiring from scholars or those charged with authority can lead to serious consequences. The Prophet (Peace and Blessings be upon him) declared those sahaba who gave wrong ruling as his murderers. This hadith also proves that asking unqualified people will also lead to misguidance, hence Wahabis and their so called Ulama are unqualified at first place which is why they reach wrong and rigid conclusions.


There could be many more hadiths which could be shown. There are abundant examples in hadith which forbid something at a certain time but allow it at another (i.e. previous ruling becomes abrogated by other hadith). A layman who has not read hadith books in totality can obviously come to wrong conclusions, whereas Fuqaha have derived rulings for us by understanding Qur’an and Hadith in depth. Hence this is why Taqlid is necessary.

For example It has come in hadith:

Abu Hurairah narrated: "Indeed the Messenger of Allah cursed the women who visit the graves." [Jami at-Tirmidhi, Vol. 2, Book 5, Hadith 1056]

From this hadith a layman can come to abrupt opinion that a woman who visits graves is cursed. However this can again lead to serious consequences as Sayyida Aisha (RA) used to visit graves herself. [See Sahih Muslim]

Plus the Prophet (Peace be upon him) later on allowed people to visit graves generally.

Abdullah b. Buraida reported on the authority of his father that Allah's Messenger () said this: I prohibited you from visiting the graves, but (now) you may visit them [Sahih Muslim: Book 22, Hadith 4866]

Hence a layman who has not read hadith books in totality can easily reach wrong conclusion. It is the fuqaha who have studied Qur’an and Sunnah completely and hence following their rulings is haqq.

Wahabis might ask that you do taqlid of 1 Imam so how can you say he knew all the hadiths? The answer to this is that we follow the complete school of thought comprising of scholars starting from the times of Imam Abu hanifa for example, till today. The books written in all respective schools have derived rulings which are precisely based on Qur’an and Sunnah.

Hadith # 3 (Which can not only misguide but has misguided Wahabis)
There is a hadith (to take an example researched by hadith specialist, sheikh Shu‘ayb al-Arna’ut) related by Ahmad (4/318), Bayhaqi (2/132), Ibn Khuzayma (1/354), that the Companion Wa’il ibn Hujr al-Hadrami said that when he watched the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) kneeling in the Tashahhud or "Testification of Faith" of his prayer, the Prophet: lifted his [index] finger, and I saw him move it, supplicating with it. I came [some time] after that and saw people in [winter] over-cloaks, their hands moving under the cloaks (Ibn Hibban, 5/170–71).
Now, all of the versions of the hadith mentioning that the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) moved his finger have been related to us by way of Za’ida ibn Qudama al-Thaqafi, a narrator who is considered reliable, and who transmitted it from the hadith sheikh ‘Asim ibn Kulayb, who related it from his father Kulayb ibn Shihab, from Wa’il ibn Hujr al-Hadrami. But we find that this version of "moving the finger" contradicts versions of the hadith transmitted from the same sheikh, ‘Asim ibn Kulayb, by no less than ten of ‘Asim’s other students, all of them reliable, who heard ‘Asim report that the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) did not move but rather pointed (ashara) with his index finger (towards the qibla or "direction of prayer").
These companions of ‘Asim (with their hadiths, which are well authenticated (hasan)) are: Sufyan al-Thawri: "then he pointed with his index finger, putting the thumb to the middle finger to make a ring with them" (al-Musannaf 2/68–69); Sufyan ibn ‘Uyayna: "he joined his thumb and middle finger to make a ring, and pointed with his index finger" (Ahmad, 4/318); Shu‘ba ibn al-Hajjaj: "he pointed with his index finger, and formed a ring with the middle one" (Ahmad, 4/319); Qays ibn al-Rabi‘: "then he joined his thumb and middle finger to make a ring, and pointed with his index finger" (Tabarani, 22/33–34); ‘Abd al-Wahid ibn Ziyad al-‘Abdi: "he made a ring with a finger, and pointed with his index finger" (Ahmad, 4/316); ‘Abdullah ibn Idris al-Awdi: "he had joined his thumb and middle finger to make a ring, and raised the finger between them to make du‘a (supplication) in the Testification of Faith" (Ibn Majah, 1/295); Zuhayr ibn Mu‘awiya: "and I saw him [‘Asim] say, ‘Like this,’—and Zuhayr pointed with his first index finger, holding two fingers in, and made a ring with his thumb and second index [middle] finger" (Ahmad, 4.318–19); Abu al-Ahwas Sallam ibn Sulaym: "he began making du‘a like this—meaning with his index finger, pointing with it—" (Musnad al-Tayalisi, 137); Bishr ibn al-Mufaddal: "and I saw him [‘Asim] say, ‘Like this,’—and Bishr joined his thumb and middle finger to make a ring, and pointed with his index finger" (Abi Dawud, 1/251); and Khalid ibn Abdullah al-Wasiti: "then he joined his thumb and middle finger to make a ring, and pointed with his index finger" (Bayhaqi, 2/131). 
All of these narrators are reliable (thiqat), and all heard ‘Asim ibn Kulayb relate that the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) "pointed with (ashara bi) his index finger" during the Testimony of Faith in his prayer. There are many other narrations of "pointing with the index finger" transmitted through sheikhs other than ‘Asim, omitted here for brevity—four of them, for example, in Sahih Muslim, 1.408–9). The point is, for illustrating the meaning of a shadhdh or "deviant hadith," that the version of moving the finger was conveyed only by Za’ida ibn Qudama from ‘Asim. Ibn Khuzayma says: "There is not a single hadith containing yuharrikuha (‘he moved it’) except this hadith mentioned by Za’ida" (Ibn Khuzayma, 1/354). 
So we know that the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) used to point with his index finger, and that the version of "moving his finger" is shadhdh or "deviant," and represents a slip of the narrator, for the word ishara in the majority’s version means only "to point or gesture at," or "to indicate with the hand," and has no recorded lexical sense of wiggling or shaking the finger (Lisan al-‘Arab, 4/437 and al-Qamus al-muhit (540). This interpretation is explicitly borne out by well authenticated hadiths related from the Companion Abdullah ibn al-Zubayr that "the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) used to point with his index finger when making supplication [in the Testification of Faith], and did not move it" (Abi Dawud, 1/260) and that he "used to point with his index finger when making supplication, without moving it" (Bayhaqi, 2/131–32).

Albani and other Wahabis have hypocritically called the Hadith of Sunnan Abu Dawud and Nasai’I to be weak in regards to not moving the finger. Therefore we would like to show comprehensive authentication of this hadith.

Imam an-Nawawi (rah) said:
لرواية ابن الزبير وذكر باسناده الصحيح عن ابن الزبير رضى الله عنهما أن النبي صلي الله عليه وسلم " كان يشير بأصبعه إذا دعا لا يحركها
Translation: It is narrated from Ibn Zubayr (RA) “WITH SAHIH CHAIN” from the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) then he mentioned the same hadith of not moving the index finger [an-Nawawi in al-Majmu, 3/454]
Imam an-Nawawi (rah) also said:
الذى قطع به الجمهور أنه لا يحركها فلو حركها كان مكروها ولا تبطل صلاته لانه عمل قليل
Translation: It is conclusively proven from the majority (of scholars) that one should not move (his finger) and it is Makruh but it would not invalidate the prayer as it is Amal-Qaleel (minor movement)  [ibid]]
Please note that according to Hanafi school it will invalidate the prayer because it is counted in Amal al-Katheer not Qaleel.
Let us see detailed authentication of all narrators in hadith of Abu Dawud in regards to not moving the index finger:
The chain of hadith in Sunnan Abu Dawud is this

Ibrahim Ibn al-Hasan al-Musaysi

Regarding him Imam Ibn Hajr said:

وكتب عنه أبو حاتـم وقال: صدوق .
وقال النسائي : ثقة ، وفـي موضع آخر: لـيس به بأس .
قلت: وذكره ابن حبـان فـي «الثقات».

Translation: Imam Abu Hatim said he is “TRUTHFUL” Imam Nasai’i said: “THIQA” and Ibn Hibban mentioned him in his “THIQAAT”[Tahdhib ut-Tahdhib 1/72]

The second narrator is Hajjaj bin Muhammad.

Regarding him Imam Ibn Hajr said:

وقال علي بن المَدِيني، والنّسائي : ثِقة
وكان ثقة صدوقا

Translation: Ali bin Mudayni and Imam Nasai said that he is “THIQA” (Ibn Hajr) said: He is “TRUTHFUL”[Tahdhib ut-Tahdhib 1/469]

The third narrator is Ibn Jurayj, regarding him Imam Ibn Hajr said:

ابن جُرَيْج الفقيه

Translation: Ibn Jurayj the Faqih [Taqrib ut Tahdhib]

قال الإمام احمد ثبت صحيح الحديث ولم يحدث بشيء إلا أتقنه الجرح 5/ 357 / 1687 . 

Imam Ahmed bin Hanbal said: He is Thabat and “SAHIH UL HADITH” [Al-Jarh 5/357]

The fourth narrator is Ziyad bin Sa’d, regarding him Imam Ibn Hajr said in Tahdhib:

عن يحيـى بن مَعين، وأبو زُرْعَة، وأبو حاتِم: ثقة
وقال النّسائيّ: ثقة ثَبْت .
روى له الجماعة

Translation: Yahya bin Ma’een, Abu Zarah and Abu Hatim said that he is “THIQA” Imam Nasai said: He is “UTTERLY RELIABLE (THIQA THABIT)” and the Jamaah narrated from him.

The fifth narrator is Muhammad bin Ajlan, regarding him Imam Ibn Hajr said in Tahdhib ut Tahdhib:

وقال عبد الله بن أحمد بن حنبل، عن أبـيه: سمعتُ ابن عُيَـيْنَة يقول: حدّثنا مـحمد بن عَجْلان، وكان ثق
وقال إسحاق (بن منصور)، عن يحيـى بن مَعِين: ثقة

Translation: Imam Ahmed narrates from Ibn Uyayna the hadith from Muhammad bin Ajjlan “WHO IS THIQA” Ibn Ishaq (bin Mansur) narrates from Yahya bin Ma’een who said he is “THIQA”

The sixth narrator is Aamir bin Abdullah. Regarding him Imam Ibn Hajr said in Tahdhib ut Tahdhib:

قال عبد الله بن أحمد بن حنبل ، عن أبيه: ثقة من أوثق الناس.
وقال إسحاق بن منصور : عن يحيى بن مَعِين، وأبو حاتم، والنَّسائيُّ: ثقة .
زاد أبو حاتم : صالح

Translation: Imam Ahmed bin Hanbal said: He is “THIQA” ..Ishaq bin Mansur, Yahya bin Ma’een, Abu Hatim and Nasai said: He is “THIQA” .. Abu Hatim added: He is also “RIGHTEOUS”

Hence there is no doubt that the hadith is Sahih. The Wahabis on the other hand wiggle their finger by following “AN APPARENTLY” Sahih hadith of wiggling the finger but they are unaware that comprehensive study of hadith books proves that wiggling the finger is based on “SHAADH” report. This establishes that Taqlid is necessary because independent reasoning of laymen can make them reach wrong conclusions even if some hadith is apparently Sahih. We have to follow mainstream scholars and all of them are of the opinion that laymen should do taqlid.

Imam Abdur Rauf al-Manawi (rah) narrates from Imam al-Dhahabi (rah) who said:

It is Wajib upon us to consider the 4 Imams (i.e. Abu Hanifa, Imam Shafi’i, Imam Malik and Imam Ahmed) plus also both Sufyan ath-thauri and Sufyan bin Uyena, Imam Awzai, Dawud al-Dhahiri, Ishaq bin Rahwiyah etc… to be on guidance. Any person “WHO IS NOT A MUJTAHID HIMSELF THEN IT IS NECESSARY (WAJIB) FOR HIM TO DO TAQLID OF AN ESTABLISHED MUJTAHID”… However according to Imam al Haramayn the taqlid is not allowed of those Sahaba, Tabiyeen and all those people whose Madhahib have not been established. “IN THE MATTER OF QA’ZA AND FATWA IT IS NOT ALLOWED TO DO TAQLID OF ANYONE OTHER THAN THE 4 IMAMS BECAUSE THEIR MADHAHIB HAVE BEEN NARRATED AND BECOME FAMOUS”

The simple and specific sayings of them have been well explained as compared to other Madhahib whose writings have finished. Imam Fakhr ud-din Razi (rah) has narrated “CONSENSUS OF DEEP REASEARCHERS ON THIS THAT ORDINARY PEOPLE SHOULD BE STOPPED FROM DOING TAQLID OF OTHER SAHABA AND CLASSICAL SCHOLARS” (because their writings cease to exist) [Faydh ul Qadeer Sharh Jami ul-Saghir by Imam al-Manawi, Volume No. 2, Page No. 210]

Shah Wali-Ullah Muhadith Dhelvi (rah) who is respected even by Wahbiyoon, he explains beautifully why 4 Imams themselves did not do Taqlid but it is wajib on later people:

واعلم ان الناس كانوا فى المائة الاولى والثانية غير مجتمعين على التقليد لمزهب واحد بعينه
-
Translation: Know that people were not accustomed is the first and second centuries to do Taqlid of any one specified Madhab. [al-Insaf fi Bayan Asbab al-Iskhtilaf Page No. 109]

Than he said:

وبعد المائتين ظهر فيهم التمزهب للمجتهد بعينه وكان هزا هو الواجب فى زلك الزمان.
-
Translation: After the second century, A Mujtahid was specified and followed. There might have been very few people then who did not follow a specific Mujtahid's Madhab. That was Wajib Then. [ibid Page No. 112-3]

Some people wonder how that which was not necessary for the Sahaba become necessary for later day people. So, He (Shah Waliullah) answered this question Too.
-
قلت الواجب الأصل هو أن يكون في الأمة من يعرف الأحكام الفرعية من أدلتها التفصيلية أجمع على ذلك أهل الحق ومقدمة الواجب واجبة فإذا كان للواجب طرق متعددة وجب تحصيل طريق من تلك الطرق من غير تعيين وإذا تعين له طريق واحد وجب ذلك الطريق بخصوصه

وكان السلف لا يكتبون الحديث ثم صار يومنا هذا كتابة الحديث واجبة لأن رواية الحديث لا سبيل لها اليوم إلا بمعرفة هذه الكتب وكان السلف لا يشتغلون بالنحو واللغة وكان لسانهم عربيا لا يحتاجون إلى هذه الفنون ثم صار يومنا هذا معرفة اللغة العربية واجبة لبعد العهد عن العرب الأول وشواهد ما نحن فيه كثيرة جدا وعلى هذا ينبغي أن القياس وجوب التقليد لإمام بعينه فانه قد يكون واجبا وقد لا يكون واجبا
-
Translation: I (Waliullah) say: Its is actually necessary that there should be people in the ummah who explain the laws of Shari'ah with reasoning, If there are many ways to discharge that Wajib then one of them should be chosen, But if there is only one way to do that then it is necessary to gain that method. For example. our predecessors did not write the Ahadith, but it is Wajib to write them down in our times, because there is no other way to circulate Hadith. Similarly, our predecessors did not occupy themselves in learning grammar because that was their mother tongue, but it is Wajib in our times to learn Arabic because we are very far from the earlier Arabs. There are many other examples (of something becoming Wajib with changing times) and we must Imagine the specification of an Imam on this, for it can be Wajib sometimes and not at other times. [ibid Page No. 123-4]

He went on to write:

فاذا كان إنسان جاهل في بلاد الهند أو في بلاد ما وراء النهر وليس هناك عالم شافعي ولا مالكي ولا حنبلي ولا كتاب من كتب هذه المذاهب وجب عليه أن يقلد لمذهب أبي حنيفة ويحرم عليه أن يخرج من مذهبه لأنه حينئذ يخلع ربقة الشريعة ويبقى سدى مهملا بخلاف ما إذا كان في الحرمين
-
Translation: Thus if an Ignorant person is in India or any place where there is no Shafi'i, Maliki or Hanbali scholar and none of their Literature,
then for him only the Taqleed of Imam Abu Hanifah (rah) is Wajib and he is forbidden to forsake his School of thought, for, he will then become free to cast off restriction. This is different when he is in the Harmain (Makkah or Madinah) where he may follow anyone of the four Madhab (school) of thought. [ibid Page No. 124]

He said further:

وبالجملة فالتمذهب للمجتهدين سر ألهمه الله تعالى العلماء وتبعهم عليه من حيث يشعرون أو لا يشعرون
-
Translation: All Madhahib and their Mujtahideen binding themselves to it is a secret with which Allah has inspired and made them unanimous on it knowingly or unconsciously. [ibid Page No. 115]

Shah Waliullah Muhadith Dehalvi (rah) also said:

أن هذه المذاهب الأربعة المدونة قد اجتمعت الأمة أو من يعتد به منها على جواز تقليدها إلى بومنا هذا وفي ذلك من المصالح ما لا يخفى لا سيما في هذه الأيام التي قصرت فيها الهمم وأشربت النفوس الهوى وأعجب كل ذي رأي برأيه
-
Translation: Surely the Ummah is agreed on the legality of following the four schools of Thought. The wisdom is that is not unknown, particularly.... in these times when strength has weakened, base desires have made home in the hearts and everyone proclaims his opinion arrogantly. [Ibid Page No. 148-9: Publish: Dar Ibn Hazm, Beirut/Lebanon]

Allama Abdul Hayi Lakhnawi (rah) went to the extent of proving that even Mujtahid can do taqlid of greater scholar. He has cited Imam Abu Hanifah (rah) in the account of Imam Halwani (rah):

وقد روى عن الامام الاعظم جواز التقليد المجتهد بمن هو اعلم منه
-
Translation: For a Mujtahid, Taqleed of a scholar greater than him is allowed. [Taaliqat al-Sunniyah Page No. 96]

Abdullah Ibn Masud (RA) saying is also cited often against Taqleed: "Let no one follow another in his religion in such a way that if he believes, he too believes, and if he disbelieves, he too disbelieves"

Obviously, no one permits Taqleed of this kind. His words are very clear that he does not tolerate Taqleed in Beliefs, and we also affirm it. But, as for Taqleed of the predecessors to learn injunctions of religion, Abdullah Ibn Masud (RA) has said:

من كان مستنا فليستن بمن قد مات، فان الحى لا تومن عليه الفتنة اولئك اصحاب محمد صلى عليه وسلم كانوا افضل هزا الامة... فاعر فوالهم فضلهم واتبعوهم على اثرهم تمسكوا بما استطعتم من اخلاقهم وسيرهم فانهم كانوا على الهدى المستقيم
-
Translation: If anyone has to follow anyone, let him follow those who are dead, because we are not confident of the living that they will never succumb to mischief. They (worthy of being followed) are the Sahabah who are the most excellent people of this Ummah.... So, you must recognize their esteem and follow their Aathar and adopt their Manners and Habits as much as you can, because were on the right Path. [Mishqat al Masabih Volume 001, Page No. 68-9, Hadith Number 193]

Similarly people doing taqlid of passed away great scholars is proven.

It was once said to Imam Abu Hanifa, "In such and such a mosque there is a circle that discusses fiqh (lit. the "understanding of fine points of the religion")". He asked, "Do they have a master over them?" and they said no. He said, "They will never understand" (Ibn Muflih, al-Adab al-shariyya wa al-minah al-mariyya. 3 vols. Cairo n.d. Reprint. Cairo: Maktaba Ibn Taymiya, 1398/1978, 3.374). 

What a beautiful saying of Imam Abu Hanifa (rah). The proper procedure of learning in Islam is to sit and learn from established scholars not by deducing rulings directly from the sources. Remember that these scholars are mainstream scholars who uphold Taqlid not self assumed scholars who are found in Wahabi cult.

Mullah Ali Qari (rah) the great Hanafi scholar beautifully said:

The early scholars said: The hadith scholar without knowledge of fiqh is like a seller of drugs who is no physician: he has them but he does not know what to do with them; and the fiqh scholar without knowledge of hadith is like a physician without drugs: he knows what constitutes a remedy, but does not dispose of it." You [the scholars of hadith] are the pharmacists but we [the jurists] are the physicians." [Mu`taqad Abi Hanifa al-Imam (p. 42)]

Imam Nawawi was asked : Is it permissible for someone of a particular school to follow a different school in matters that will be of benefit to him, and to seek out dispensations?" He answered (Allah be well pleased with him), "It is not permissible to seek out dispensations [: meaning it is unlawful, and the person who does is corrupt (fasiq)], and  Allah knows best" (Fatawa al-Imam al-Nawawi (y105),113).

Imam an-Nawawi also said:
والثانى يلزمه وبه قطع أبو الحسن الكيا وهو جار في كل من لم يبلغ رتبة الاجتهاد من الفقهاء واصحاب سائر العلوم: ووجهه انه لو جاز اتباع أي مذهب شاء لا فضى إلى ان يلتقط رخص المذاهب متبعا هواه ويتخير بين التحليل والتحريم والوجوب والجواز وذلك يؤدى إلى انحلال ربقة التكليف بخلاف العصر الاول فانه لم تكن المذاهب الوافية بأحكام الحوادث مهذبة وعرفت: فعلى هذا يلزمه ان يجتهد في اختيار مذهب يقلده على التعيين

The second view is it is obligatory (yalzimuhu) for him to follow one particular school, and that was the definitive position according to Imam Abul-Hassan (the father of Imam al-Haramayn Al-Juwayni). And this applies to everyone who has not reached the rank of Ijtihad of the jurists and scholars of other disciplines. The reasoning for this ruling is that if it was permitted to follow any school one wished it would lead to hand-picking the dispensations of the schools, following one's desires. He would be choosing between Halal and Haram, and obligatory and permissible. Ultimately that would lead to relinquishing oneself from the burden of responsibility. This is not the same as during the first generations, for the schools that were sufficient in terms of their rulings for newer issues, were neither codified or did they became popular. Thus on this basis it is obligatory for a person to strive in choosing a Madhab which alone he follows. (Al Majmu’ 1/93)


This proves from classical scholars that one should not leave his Madhab, because if one starts doing this every time one comes across a hadith then such a person is only prone to making a blunder as he would not know whether the hadith is Nasikh or Mansukh, or whether it is Shadh or even weak. We have explained above through the hadith of “wiggling finger in tashahud” that laymen cannot reach truth even if they come across apparently Sahih hadiths.

In Sunnan Darimi it states:


 أخبرنا سعيد بن عامر عن هشام عن محمد عن حذيفة قال إنما يفتي الناس ثلاثة رجل إمام أو وال ورجل يعلم ناسخ القرآن من المنسوخ قالوا يا حذيفة ومن ذلك قال عمر بن الخطاب أو أحمق متكلف

Hudhayfa Ibn al-Yaman (RA) said: Only three types of persons can give fatwas to people: A man who is either an Imam or a governor, and a man who can tell the abrogating verses of the Qur'an from the abrogated." They asked: "Who is such a man?" He said: "`Umar ibn al-Khattab. Other than those three types, there are only overreaching fools. [Sunnan Darimi, Narration # 172]

This proves that Wahabis who go around giving fatwas on Internet or elsewhere are nothing but overreaching fools.

In this regard we would like to show a hadith from Bukhari which Wahabis and anti Islamic propagandists often misuse in order to degrade the status of Prophet (Peace and Blessings be upon him)

The Hadith of Bukhari states from Prophet (Peace be upon him): By Allah, though I am Allah's Apostle, I neither know what will happen to me, nor to you. [Volume 9, Book 87, Number 145]

In English translation of Taqwiyatul Iman written by Ismail Dhelvi the big Wahabi authority of past, It is translated as: Even though I am a Messenger of Allah, I can say swearingly by Him in the earnest, that I do not have a faintest idea as to what is going to happen to me or to you (Taqwiyatul Iman, Pg 78, Published by Dar us Salam)

First of all look how big Wahabi authority insults the Prophet (Peace be upon him) by giving false translation of the hadith. There is no wording which says “faintest idea”

Ismail dhelvi writes on same page: It implies that the kind of treatment Allah is going to mete out to his slaves in this world, in their graves, or in the Hereafter is neither known by Prophets, nor a sage. They neither know about themselves nor about others [Pg. 78]
What a big disrespect in the court of Prophet this is. Keeping in mind the quote from Hudhayfa Ibn al-Yaman (RA) the Sahabi which we showed above, let us read the following from Ibn Hajr al-Asqalani and it will prove that even big authorities in Wahabism were overreaching fools let alone other unqualified Wahabis who fire at people with their fatwa guns.

Imam Ibn Hajr al Asqalani (Rahimuhullah) explains in his exceptional Fath ul Bari:

 فوالله ما أدري وأنا رسول الله ما يفعل بي ولا بكم " وإنما قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ذلك موافقة
لقوله تعالى في سورة الأحقاف ( قل ما كنت بدعا من الرسل , وما أدري ما يفعل بي ولا بكم ) وكان ذلك قبل نزول قوله تعالى ( ليغفر لك الله ما تقدم من ذنبك وما تأخر ) لأن الأحقاف مكية , وسورة الفتح مدنية بلا خلاف فيهما , وقد ثبت أنه صلى الله عليه وسلم قال " أنا أول من يدخل الجنة " وغير ذلك من الأخبار الصريحة في معناه

Translation: As for his expression "By Allah, though I am the Apostle of Allah, yet I do not know what Allah will do to me", the Prophet (peace be upon him) uttered this in accordance with Allah's statement in Surah Al Ahqaaf "Say: "I am no bringer of new-fangled doctrine among the messengers, nor do I know what will be done with me or with you"(46:9). This was before the revealing of the verse by Allah All Mighty "That Allah may forgive you your faults of the past and the future" (Surah 48:2) because Al Ahqaaf  (46) is a Makkan Surah, while Surah Al Fatah (48) is a Madinan Surah and there is no contradiction between the two of them. And it has been established that he (Peace be upon him) said "I am the first who will enter paradise" and there other reports which convey this meaning as well. [Fath ul Bari, Sharh Sahih ul Bukhari, Kitab: Al Janaaiz, Bab: Al Dukhool 'Ala Al Mayyit Ba'd Al Mawt izhaa Adraja fi Akfaanihi, Commentary on Hadith no. 1166]

Look at the state of big Wahabi authorities, how they misuse hadiths to misguide the general public. We have come across many Wahabis who misuse the hadith of Bukhari and claim that Prophet was clueless about his own state in hereafter (Naudhobillah). May Allah save the ummah from Shar of Wahabism.

Let us again cite more proofs from Qur’an and Sunnah which prove doing Taqlid.

Qur’an states:

O you who have believed, obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those in authority among you. And if you disagree over anything, refer it to Allah and the Messenger, if you should believe in Allah and the Last Day. That is the best [way] and best in result. [4:59]
The Wahabis say that last part of this verse teaches us to refer things back to Allah and his Messenger. They exclaim with joy that even laymen should not do taqlid and refer back only to Qur’an and Sunnah. We have already explained above that laymen cannot reach correct fiqhi positions as they have not read Qur’an (along with Tafaseer) nor hadiths in totality, hence they will follow their whims and desire of what they consider to be correct.
We will shed more light on turning back to Allah and Messenger later on, but first let us see what “Those charged with authority” means.
The leader of Mufasireen i.e. Imam Ibn Jarir at-Tabri (rah) in explanation of Ulil Amr said:
حدثني المثنى، قال: ثنا عبد الله بن صالح، قال: ثني معاوية بن صالح، عن عليّ بن أبي طلحة، عن ابن عباس، قوله: { أَطِيعُواْ ٱللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُواْ ٱلرَّسُولَ وَأُوْلِى ٱلأَمْرِ مِنْكُمْ } يعني: أهل الفقه والدين

Translation: Ibn Abbas (RA) said: { O you who have believed, obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those in authority among you} refers to Fuqaha in Deen.
He also states:
حدثني أحمد بن حازم، قال: ثنا أبو نعيم، قال: ثنا سفيان، عن حصين، عن مجاهد: { وَأُوْلِى ٱلأَمْرِ مِنْكُمْ } قال: أهل العلم.

Imam Mujahid (rah) said: It refers to People of knowledge.
He further states:

حدثني المثنى، قال: ثنا عمرو بن عون، قال: ثنا هشيم، عن عبد الملك، عن عطاء: { وَأُوْلِى ٱلأَمْرِ مِنْكُمْ } قال: الفقهاء والعلماء.

Translation: Ata (bin Rabah, the leadhing faqih of Makkah) said:  {and those in authority among you} refers to Fuqaha and Ulama.

He also states:

قال: وأخبرنا عبد الرزاق، عن الثَّوْرِيّ، عن ابن أبي نجيح، عن مجاهد قوله: { وَأُوْلِى ٱلأَمْرِ مِنْكُمْ } قال: هم أهل الفقه والعلم.

Imam Mujahid (with another chain) states: {And those in authority among you} refers to “PEOPLE OF FIQH AND KNOWLEDGE”

[Tafsir at-Tabri under 4:59]

Now the fuqaha in majority except for misguided people like Ibn Taymiyyah, Ibn Qayyim, and company whom Wahabis fanatically follow (even in Aqida, although we consider it haram to do taqlid in Aqida) have established beyond doubt that fuqaha and people of knowledge refers to scholars who have asked laymen to do Taqlid.

Coming back to the point in verse which asks us to refer back to Allah and his Messenger, then even this applies to Fuqaha and scholars, not laymen. The fuqaha and scholars should refer back to Allah and his Apostle.

Now let us present a hadith which proves that multiple viewpoints on same issue can be correct even if they are contrary to eachother.


Volume 5, Book 59, Number 445: (Sahih Bukhari)

Narrated Ibn Umar: On the day of Al-Ahzab (i.e. Clans) the Prophet said, "None of you Muslims should offer the 'Asr prayer but at Banu Quraiza's place." The 'Asr prayer became due for some of them on the way. Some of those said, "We will not offer it till we reach it, the place of Banu Quraiza," while some others said, "No, we will pray at this spot, for the Prophet did not mean that for us." Later on It was mentioned to the Prophet and he did not berate any of the two groups.

This hadith proves that multiple opinions could be right on same issue. Hadiths could be understood in different ways which does not make any of the opinion to be invalid. Hence following one of the 4 schools of jurisprudence is correct even if some opinion seems to be contrary to a hadith.

Let us expand this further and read the hadith about Ijtihad.

Volume 9, Book 92, Number 450: (Sahih Bukhari)

Narrated 'Amr bin Al-'As: That he heard Allah's Apostle saying, "If a judge gives a verdict according to the best of his knowledge and his verdict is correct (i.e. agrees with Allah and His Apostle's verdict) he will receive a double reward, and if he gives a verdict according to the best of his knowledge and his verdict is wrong, (i.e. against that of Allah and His Apostle) even then he will get a reward

This hadith proves that Mujathid or judge even if he errs he still gets one reward. Although all 4 schools are based on concrete proofs from Qur’an and Sunnah, but assuming for arguments sake that some ruling is wrong in 1 school then still the followers and Mujtahid will get 1 reward.

Let us look at another hadith:

Volume 5, Book 57, Number 109:  (Sahih Bukhari)
Narrated Ibn Abi Mulaika:
Somebody said to Ibn 'Abbas, "Can you speak to the chief of the believers Muwaiya, as he does not pray except one Rak'a as Witr?" Ibn 'Abbas replied, "He is a Faqih (i.e. a learned man who can give religious verdicts) ."

This hadith proves that overwhelming majority of Sahaba used to offer 3 Rakah witr. This is why the person asked the question from Ibn Abbas in amazement. Ibn Abbas (ra) did not rebuke Ameer Muawiya (ra) but rather said that “HE IS A FAQIH” This proves that different opinions could be right on same issue.

Hanafi school strongly believes that Witr is Wajib and also that it is 3 Rakahs whereas 1 Rakah does not suffice it. On the contrary other schools (such as Shafi’i or Hanbli) believe that Witr is just Sunnah/Nafl and could be said in odd number starting from 1 Rakah.

We being Ahnaaf respect the other schools of jurisprudence, however we have confirmed and Sahih hadiths which prove that witr could never be a single Rakah and also that it is Wajib.

Here is proof on Witr to be Wajib:


حدثنا ابنُ المُثَنَّى أخبرنا أَبُو إِسْحَاقَ الطَّالَقَانِيُّ أخبرنا الْفَضْلُ بنُ مُوسَى عن عُبَيْدِالله بنِ عَبْدِ الله الْعَتَكِيِّ عن عَبْدِ الله بنِ بُرَيْدَةَ عن أبِيهِ ، قال: سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ الله صلى الله عليه وسلّم يَقُولُ: «الْوِتْرُ حَقٌّ فَمنْ لَمْ يُوتِرْ فَلَيْسَ مِنَّا، الْوِتْرُ حَقٌّ فَمنْ لَمْ يُوتِرْ فَلَيْسَ مِنَّا، الْوِتْرُ حَقٌّ فَمنْ لَمْ يُوتِرْ فَلَيْسَ مِنَّا».

Translation: Narrated Buraydah ibn al-Hasib: I heard the Apostle of Allah (Peace be upon him) say: 
The Witr is a duty, so he who does not observe it does not belong to us; the witr is a duty, so he who does not observe it does not belong to us; the witr is a duty, so he who does not observe it does not belong to us. [Sunnan Abu Dawud, Book 8, Hadith # 1414, Online Version]

This hadith proves without a shadow of doubt that Witr is “WAJIB” as it is called a duty on Muslims and whosoever does not perform it then he does not belong to us.

There is Jarh on one narrator of this hadith i.e. Ubayd Ullah bin Abdullah al-Akti, hence here is another hadith which proves Witr to be Wajib.

حدثنا أَبُو الْوَلِيدِ الطَّيَالِسِيُّ وَ قُتَيْبَةُ بنُ سَعِيدٍ المَعْنَى قالا أخبرنا اللَّيْثُ عن يَزِيدَ بنِ أبي حَبيبٍ عن عَبْدِ الله بنِ رَاشِدٍ الزَّوْفِيِّ عن عَبْدِ الله بنِ أبي مُرَّةَ الزَّوْفِيِّ عن خَارِجَةَ بنِ حُذَافَةَ قال أَبُو الْوَلِيدِ الْعَدَوِيّ ، قال: «خَرَجَ عَلَيْنَا رَسُولُ الله صلى الله عليه وسلّم فَقَالَ: إِنَّ الله تَعَالَىَ قَدْ أَمَدَّكُمْ بِصَلاَةٍ وَهي خَيْرٌ لَكُمْ مِنْ حُمْرِ النَّعَمِ وَهي الْوِتْرُ فَجَعَلَهَا لَكُم فَيما بَيْنَ الْعِشَاءِ إِلَى طُلوعِ الْفَجْرِ
Translation: Narrated Kharijah ibn Hudhafah al-Adawi: The Apostle of Allah (Peace be upon him) came out to us and said: Allah the Exalted has given you "AN EXTRA PRAYER" which is better for you then the red camels (i.e. high breed camels). This is the witr which Allah has appointed for you between the night prayer and the daybreak. [Sunnan Abu Dawud, Book 8, Number 141]


Here is another:


حدثنا مُحمَّدُ بنُ عَوْفٍ أخبَرَنَا عُثْمانُ بنُ سَعِيدٍ عن أبي غَسَّانَ مُحمَّدِ بنِ مُطَرِّفٍ المَدَنيِّ عنْ زَيْدِ بنِ أَسْلَمَ عنْ عَطَاءِ بنِ يَسَارٍ عنْ أبي سَعِيدٍ ، قال قال رَسُولُ الله صلى الله عليه وسلّم: «مَنْ نَامَ عَنْ وِتْرِهِ أَوْ نَسِيَهُ فَلْيُصَلِّهِ إِذَا ذَكَرَهُ».
Translation: Narrated AbuSa'id al-Khudri: The Prophet (Peace be upon him) said: If anyone oversleeps and misses the witr, or forgets it, "HE SHOULD PRAY WHEN HE REMEMBERS" [Abu Dawud: Hadith # 1426]

Comment: This hadith also proves Witr to be Wajib because “Qadha” is only done of Fardh and Wajib prayers not Nawafil.

There are many more proofs. Hence the claim of Wahabis that Hanafi procedure of prayers is wrong is shattered into pieces. However there are hadiths which prove Witr to be Sunnah/Nafl and that is followed by other schools of jurisprudence. Both opinions are based on Sunnah and followers of any of the school shall be correct.

Regarding Witr cannot be of 1 Rakah, then here is proof:

Muhammad said: “Yaqub Ibn Ibrahim informed us, Husayb Ibn Ibrahim informed us that Ibn Masud (ra) said:“NEVER DID A SINGLE RAKAH SUFFICE” [Muwatta Imam Muhammad, Page No. 128]

Ibrahim al-Nakhai said that Alqamah said: Abdullah Ibn Masud (ra) informed us “The least that Witr can be is three rakahs” [Ibid, Pg. 128]

These are also narrated in Majma Az Zawaid with reference to Tabarani, Imam Haythami declared the chain to be“Hassan” [Majma Al Zawaid, Volume No. 2, Page No. 249]


وعن حصينٍ قالَ: بلغَ ابنَ مسعودٍ أَنَّ سَعْداً يُوتِرُ بركْعَةٍ قالَ: «ما أَجْزَأَتْ ركعةٌ قَطُّ».
رواه الطبراني في الكبير، وحصين لم يدرك ابن مسعود، وإسناده حسن.

Translation: Hussain (rah) said that Ibn Masud (ra) found out that Sa’d (ra) prays one Rakat witr, Ibn Masud (RA) said: I do not consider 1 Rakat as enough (for prayer)

This hadith is narrated by Tabarani in his al-Kabeer, Hussain has not seen Ibn Masud (ra) and “THE CHAIN IS HASAN” [Majma al Zawaid (2/504)]

Hence it is established beyond doubt that laymen shall reach right conclusions which are derived from Qur’an and Sunnah if they do Taqlid.

It is a fact that majority of Muslims and their scholars prescribe Taqlid, whosoever differs from this then he deviated from Ummah. In this regard a Sahih hadith is to be understood.

Hadith: Ibn 'Umar narrated that the Messenger of Allah(s.a.w) said: 'Indeed Allah will not gather my Ummah " - or he said: "[Muhammad's] Ummah upon deviation, and Allah's Hand is over the Jama'ah, and whoever deviates, he deviates to the Fire." (al-Tirmidhi (4/2167)

This hadith is declared weak by Wahabis due to their ignorance. The Wahabis are ill in hadith classification; if they come across a singular chain to be weak they declare the hadith to be weak, although classical Muhaditheen did not deem a hadith to be weak if it has come from multiple other reliable routes. The isolated classification of hadiths by Wahabis is misleading many people and they start calling Matn (content) of hadith as weak. This leads to rejecting Sunnah and thus people indulge in grave error.

The hadith from Ibn Umar (ra) has come with 2 different chains (one not having Suliman bin Sufyan in it). Imam Nur-ud-din al-Haythami (rah) said:


رواه الطبراني بإسنادين رجال أحدهما ثقات رجال الصحيح خلا مرزوق مولى آل طلحة وهو ثقة

Translation: It is narrated by Tabarani with “2 CHAINS” and the Rijaal of first chain are “THIQA AND THOSE OF SAHIH” except for Marzuq who is“THIQA” [Majma uz Zawaid (5/393, Hadith # 9100)]


عليك بالجماعة فإن الله عز وجل لم يجمع أمة محمد على ضلالة

Abu Masud (RA) narrates: Stick to the Jamaat because Allah azza Wajjal will “NEVER GATHER THE UMMAH OF MUHAMMAD (PEACE BE UPON HIM) UPON MISGUIDANCE” [Imam Tabarani in his Mu’jam al Kabir, Volume No. 17, Page No. 240]  - Imam al Haythami declared all the Rijaal of this hadith as “THIQA” [Majma (5/394, Hadith # 9107)]

حدّثنا يزيد بن هٰرون عن التيمي عن نعيم بن أبي هند أن أبا مسعود خرج من الكوفة ورأسه يقطر وهو يريد أن يحرم فقالوا له: أوصنا، فقال: أيها الناس اتهموا الرأي فقد رأيتني أهم أن أضرب بسيفي في معصية الله ومعصية رسوله، قالوا: أوصنا، قال: عليكم بالجماعة فإن الله لم يكن ليجمع أمة محمد على ضلالة، قال: قالوا: أوصنا، فقال: (عليكم) بتقوى الله والصبر حتى يستريح بر أو يستراح من فاجر.

[See in Mussanaf Ibn Abi Shaybah with Sahih chain, (8/672) Hadith # 33403]

فقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم وأنا آمركم بخمس الله أمرني بهن بالجماعة والسمع والطاعة والهجرة والجهاد في سبيل الله فإنه من خرج من الجماعة قيد شبر فقد خلع ربقة الإسلام من عنقه الا ان يرجع ومن دعا بدعوى الجاهلية فهو من جثاء جهنم قالوا يا رسول الله وان صام وان صلى قال وان صام وان صلى وزعم انه مسلم فادعوا المسلمين بأسمائهم بما سماهم الله عز و جل المسلمين المؤمنين عباد الله عز و جل K حديث صحيح أبو خلف موسى بن خلف - وإن اختلف فيه - متابع وبقية رجاله ثقات رجال الصحيح


Harith al-Ashari (ra) reported that the Messenger of Allah (Peace be upon him) said: "I bid you to do five things: to remain attached to the main body (Jama'ah of Muslims), listen to your ruler (the Khalifa of the Islamic state) and obey him, and migrate, and fight in the way of Allah. And he who detaches himself from the main body of the Muslims (Jama'ah) to the extent of one span of hand, he in fact, throws off the yoke of Islam from his neck, and he who calls with the call of ignorance, he is one from the denizens of Hell beyond doubt, even if he observes fast and says prayers and considers himself as a Muslim." [Musnad Ahmad, Volume 004, Hadith Number 17132]

- حدثنا عبد الله ثنا أبو اليمان ثنا بن عياش عن البختري بن عبيد بن سليمان عن أبيه عن أبي ذر عن النبي صلى الله عليه و سلم انه قال Y اثنان خير من واحد وثلاث خير من اثنين وأربعة خير من ثلاثة فعليكم بالجماعة فان الله عز و جل لن يجمع أمتي الا على هدى K إسناده ضعيف جدا


Abu Dharr (ra) reported from the Prophet (Peace be upon him) that, "Two are better than one, and three better than two; so stick to the Jama'ah for verily Allah, Most Great and Glorious, will only unite my nation on guidance."  [Musnad Ahmad Volume 005, Page No. 145, Hadith Number 20331]

حدثنا عبد الله حدثني أبي ثنا روح ثنا سعيد عن قتادة ثنا العلاء بن زياد عن معاذ بن جبل ان نبي الله صلى الله عليه و سلم قال Y ان الشيطان ذئب الإنسان كذئب الغنم يأخذ الشاة القاصية والناحية فإياكم والشعاب وعليكم بالجماعة والعامة والمسجد K حسن لغيره وهذا سند رجاله ثقات إلا أنه منقطع

 “Shaytan is a wolf like the wolf that preys on sheep, taking the isolated and the stray among them; therefore, avoid factionalism and keep to the Congregation and the collective and the masjid.”[Reference: Imam Ahmad bin Hambal relates it through Mu`adh and through Abu Dharr, the two chains being respectively fair [hasan] and sound [sahih] according to Haythami in Majma` al-zawa’id, Vol. 6, Page 123]

Hence Wahabi sheep are attacked by the wolf Shaytan. Sticking to main body of Muslims and Allah not uniting Muslims on ignorance is a great proof that one should do Taqlid. If people start abandoning taqlid like Wahabis do then we shall surely deviate from the main body of Muslims and this will lead people to hell fire. It is a universal fact that majority of Muslims and their scholars prescribe Taqlid (both the Ahlus Sunnah or Barelvi-Sufis as Wahabis call them, and Deobandi sect approve taqlid).















Taqleed , following one of four schools of jurisprudence of Ahlus sunnah is wajib for laymen

Taqleed , following one of four schools of jurisprudence of Ahlus sunnah is wajib for laymen


Answering Misconception and Common Objection:Often people claim that if you adhere to a particular school, you are not on the path of the Qur’an and Sunnah.

REPLY:


This is a very inaccurate statement because all schools derive their rulings from the Qur’an and Sunnah. The differences among the schools arise due to many factors. Two of these are that sometimes the companions (ra) disagreed on a particular issue and other times the basic underlying principles adopted by the respective Imams gave rise to a difference due to preference. For example, Imam Malik gave preference to the practice of the people of Madina as he said it was the living Sunnah.


This was his adopted principle and a person cannot say that it was incorrect because to say it is incorrect is again, an opinion due to preference.


Let us take some examples from the Holy Qur’an.


In Surah Hujurat (49) verse 12, it is stated:



وَلَا يَغْتَب بَّعْضُكُم بَعْضًا

wala yaghtab baAAdukum baAAdan


And do not backbite one another.
 (49:12)



Take a look at this injunction in the Qur’an. It is crystal clear and has no room for alternate interpretations. In Islam, it is forbidden to backbite. Anyone who can read this can understand the meaning of this because of its unambiguous nature and because there is no evidence contrary to this in Shari’ah.


Now let us take another verse of the Qur’an. In Surah Baqarah (2) verse 228, it is said:



وَالْمُطَلَّقَاتُ يَتَرَبَّصْنَ بِأَنفُسِهِنَّ ثَلاَثَةَ قُرُوَءٍ

Waalmutallaqatu yatarabbasna bianfusihinna thalathata qurooin


And the divorced women shall keep themselves waiting for three periods
(2:228)


Here the word used to define the waiting period of the divorced women is “quroo’”. This word is used in Arabic to denote both the purity period between two menstruations and also menstruation itself.


If the first meaning is taken then the woman needs to wait for three period of purity and if the second is taken then the woman has to wait for three menstrual periods. Question arises, what time period does a divorced woman need to wait?


Similar issues are present in the ahadith as well and this brings about difficulties in deducing a law from the Qur’an and Hadith. In such a situation one has two choices:


a)
 To rely on our judgment and then interpret the verses or ahadith


Or


b) To rely on what the pious predecessors [salafs] did and thus conduct according to the conclusions of the scholars of Qur’an and Hadith of the first generation.

Any person will suggest that the second option is the right way to go about Islamic jurisprudence. It does not take a rocket scientist to acknowledge that the pious predecessors were closer to the time of the revelation of the Qur’an. This gave them a special insight which made it easier for them to understand the Qur’an and Sunnah.


For example, if I live in Pakistan, I can understand the issues here far better than a person living in the USA. Just as geographically you shift further from a region, your understanding about it decreases, the same principle holds to be true when talking about a time line. The culture and norms of society in the times of ones forefathers cannot be understood in the same manner by a person 500 years down the road. And right now we are talking about a time 1430+ years ago.


How then can today a person have a better understanding of the background, environment, style of conversation and social living than compared to those who were living around that same time?


There are many such factors which gave rise to difference of opinions among the four schools but to delve into them at this point is irrelevant. In short, if one adheres to any of the four Madhhaib, he will be from among the Ahl-e-Sunnah wal Jamaa’h. He will be following the Qur’an and Sunnah.



1. Introduction


There is much confusion today about taqleed. This is because of the poor understanding of the meaning and concept of taqleed. First and foremost let us become aware of the basic terms and their meanings.


Taqleed:
 According to the Shari’ah Taqleed means adhering to the rulings of a trustworthy, reliable and authentic scholar in matters of the religion.


Muqallid (pl. Muqallideen):
 Today it refers to any person who adheres to either of the following four schools of thought or jurisprudence:

i) Hanafi (of Imam Abu Hanifa 80AH to 150AH)

ii) Maliki (of Imam Malik 93AH to 179AH)

iii) Shafi’i (of Imam Shafi’i 150AH to 240AH)

iv) Hanbali (of Imam Ahmed 164AH to 241AH)


Defination of Salafi/ Ghair Muqallid/Wahabi:
 This is the opposite of Muqallid – a person who does not adhere to either of the above four Madhhaib (schools of jurisprudence).



Types of Taqleed



There are only two kinds of Taqleed.


a) When no particular imam is specified and different imams are followed in different issues, it is known as Taqleed Ghair Shakhsi, also known as Absolute Taqleed or General Taqleed.


b) When taqleed is made to a mujtahid and all issues are referred to him. This is Taqleed Shakhsi.

Taqleed in the Qur’an


A common misconception is prevalent among some of our Muslim brothers that the concept of taqleed is not present in the Qur’an. We will analyze some of the verses which prove that the concept of taqleed is mentioned in the Qur’an.


Concept of taqleed in the Qur’an are as follows:


Quranic Verse # 1

“Ask the people of knowledge (those who know) when you do not know.” [COLOR="rgb(139, 0, 0)"](Surah Nahl ,16:43,)[/COLOR]

Quranic Verse # 2

“These are those whom Allah had guided so you also follow their path.”
 [COLOR="rgb(139, 0, 0)"](Surah Anaam, chapter 6 Aya: 90)[/COLOR]

Quranic Verse # 3

“Had they referred to the Rasul and those in command amongst them, then surely those with insight would have been able to verify the matter.
”[COLOR="rgb(139, 0, 0)"] (Surah Nisa, chapter 4 verse 83)[/COLOR]

Quranic Verse # 4

“O you with Imaan! Obey Allah, Obey the Rasool and obey those in command amongst you.
”[COLOR="rgb(139, 0, 0)"] (Surah Nisa chapter 4 verse 59)[/COLOR]

Quranic Verse # 5

“Follow the path of the one who turns towards me
.”[COLOR="rgb(139, 0, 0)"] (Surah Luqman chapter 31 verse 15)[/COLOR]

Quranic Verse # 6

“O you who have Iman! Fear Allah and be with those who are true.”

[COLOR="rgb(139, 0, 0)"](Surah Taubah chapter 9 verse 119)[/COLOR]

Below we will analyze only a selected few verses such that the issue at hand becomes clear.


Quranic Proof #1 and Tafsir 


The guiding principles of taqleed are mentioned in the Qur'an

Quran States:


يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ أَطِيعُواْ اللّهَ وَأَطِيعُواْ الرَّسُولَ وَأُوْلِي الْأَمْرِ مِنكُمْ

[4:59] O Believers! Obey Allah and obey the Messenger (blessings and peace be upon him) and those (men of Truth) who hold command among you.

The 'Ulil Amr' (men of Truth) 
are said by some to be the muslims rulers and governors and by others to be Abdullah Ibn Abbas (May Allah Have Mercy Upon Him), Mujahid, Ata Ibn Rabah, Ata Ibn as-Sa'ib, Hassan al-Basri, Abu Aaliyah (rah), and many others.

Imam Fakhr udin ar-Razi (rah) 


has preferred this explanation citing many arguments. He said:

It is preferrable to apply the meaning scholers (Ulama) to "Ulil Amr" in this verse

[Tafsir Mafatih al-ghayb, Author: ar-Razi Volume 003, Page No. 334]


This Tafsir of Abdullah Ibn Abbas is repoted by Imam Tibari (rah)

[Tafsir Tibari Volume 005, Page No. 88]:
 (حدثني المثنى، قال: ثنا عبد الله بن صالح، قال: ثني معاوية بن صالح، عن عليّ بن أبي طلحة، عن ابن عباس، قوله: { أَطِيعُواْ ٱللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُواْ ٱلرَّسُولَ وَأُوْلِى ٱلأَمْرِ مِنْكُمْ } يعني: أهل الفقه والدين.) This is the strongest line of transmission of his (Abdullah Ibn Abbas) report

[al-Itiqan #80]


Imam Abu Bakr Jassas ar-Razi (rah)
 found no contradiction in both the Tafasir. Rather both meaning are valid. The rulers need to be obeyed in political matters while the Ulama must be obeyed in Issues pertaining to Shari'ah.

[Ahkam ul Qur'an; Jassas, Volume 2, Page No. 256]


Ibn al-Qayyim (rah) said:


that obedience to the rulers leads finally to obediance to the scholers of religion because the rulers obey the Ulama in matters of Shari'ah(فطاعة الامراء تبع لطاعة العلماء)

[I'Laam ul-Muqi'een, Ibn Qayyim, Volume 001 Page No. 007]

Anyways, the verse asks the muslims to obey Allah and His Messenger (Peace Be Upon Him) and Scholers (Ulama) and Jurists woh explain the words of Allah and His Messenger (Peace Be Upon Him) and this (last) obedience is Taqleed.

The Next portion of this verse is:

فَإِن تَنَازَعْتُمْ فِي شَيْءٍ فَرُدُّوهُ إِلَى اللّهِ وَالرَّسُولِ إِن كُنتُمْ تُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ

[4:59] Then if you disagree among yourselves over any issue, refer it to Allah and the Messenger (Peace Be Upon Him) for final judgment if you believe in Allah and the Last Day.

According to the above explanation, it is a continuous sentence in which the Mujtahideen are addressed. Imam Abu Bakr Jassas ar-Razi (rah) wrote in support of Ulama as 'Those in aurthority'.

Imam Abu Bakr Jassas ar-Razi (rah) wrote


وقوله تعالى عقيب زلك (فان تنازعتم فى شى ء فردوه الى الله والرسول) يدل على ان اولى الامر هم الفقهاء لانه امر سائر الناس بطاعتهم ثم قال فان تنازعتهم الخ فامر اولى الامر بردالمتنازع فيه الى كتاب الله وسنته نبيه صلى الله عليه وسلم ، از كانت العامة ومن ليس من اهل العلم ليست هزه منزلتهم ، لانهم لايعرفون كيفية الرد الى كتاب الله والسنة ووجوه دلائلهما على احكام الحوادث فثبت انه خطاب للعلماء
.



Translation: That Allah's words, if you quarrel ... follow immediately His statement about "Ulil Amr" (Those in authority) is evidence that 'Ulil Amr' are the Jurists. because Allah has commanded all men to obey them. Then, after saying, if you Quarrel ...., He Commanded the 'Ulil Amr' that they should refer back to Allah's Book and His Messenger's (Peace Be Upon Him) Sunnah that in which they differ. This command could be directed only to the Jurists because the masses and the unknowledgeable cannot be of that standard and they do not know how they have to refer back any matter to Allah's Book and the Sunnah, and they do not know how to derive evidence for new Issues. So, it is the Ulama who are addressed here.

[Tafsir Ahkam ul Quran, Volume 002, Page No. 257]


Famous Shafi Nawab Siddiq Hassan Khan views

The famous scholer of Salafis, Nawab Siddiq Hassan Khan, has also confirmed in his exegesis that the words of the Qur'an in this verse (فان تنازعتم) are addressed to the Mujtahideen.

والظاهرانه خطاب مستقل مستانف موجه المجتهدين. 

Translation: and obviously this is an address by itself and it is directed to the Mujtahideen.

[Tafsir Fath al-Beyaan Volume 002 Page No. 308]


So, its is not correct to conclude that those who are not competent to make "Ijtihad" may refer to the Qur'an and Hadith directly in connection with disputed issues and derive their conclusions. Rather, the first sentence of the commands directly from the Qur'an and Sunnah. It is their duty to obey Allah and His Messenger (Peace Be Upon Him) by asking for rulings and explanations on it. they are directed to turn to Allah's Book and the Messenger's (Peace Be Upon Him) Sunnah and deduce commanded to make Taqleed and in the second the Mujtahid to Make Ijtihad.



Quranic Proof #2 and Tafsir 


Quran States:

وَإِذَا جَاءَهُمْ أَمْرٌ مِّنَ الْأَمْنِ أَوِ الْخَوْفِ أَذَاعُواْ بِهِ وَلَوْ رَدُّوهُ إِلَى الرَّسُولِ وَإِلَى أُوْلِي الْأَمْرِ مِنْهُمْ

[4:83] When there comes to them any news of peace or fear, they spread it around. Had they referred it to the Messenger (blessing and peace be upon him) or those of them who are in command (instead of making it public),then those among them who can draw conclusion from some matter would have found it (i.e. the truth of the news).

The hypocrites in Madinah spread rumours concerning war and peace. Some simple Muslims fell into their trap and passed on to others whatever they heard. This created an atmosphere of uncertainty. the verse instructs Muslims not to do so but inform the "Ulil Amr" of whatever they learn. The qualified among them would investigage and let them know the turth.

Though this verse was revealed about a particular situation, yet the principles of exegesis and principles of Jurisprudence rely on to the-general words of the verse draw commands and rulings. Accordingly, this verse guides us to contact the people specialised in investigation and act according to their deducation. This is Taqleed.

Imam Fakhr udin ar-Razi (rah) 
has written about this verse.

فثبت أن الاستنباط حجة، والقياس إما استنباط أو داخل فيه، فوجب أن يكون حجة. إذا ثبت هذا فنقول: الآية دالة على أمور: أحدها: أن في أحكام الحوادث ما لا يعرف بالنص بل بالاستنباط. وثانيها: أن الاستنباط حجة: وثالثها: أن العامي يجب عليه تقليد العلماء في أحكام الحوادث.



Translation: So to draw conclusions is evidence, and Qiyas (analogical deducation) is the same thing or part of it, and is proof, too. Given that, this verse is evidence of some matters. (1) Some of the new Issues that grow are not understood by the text, but one has to draw conclusion, to fine out their meaning, (2) Istinbat (to draw conclusion, to arrive at the truth) is proof. (3) It is obligatory for the masses to make Taqleed of the scholers concerning issues and commands that they face."

[Tafsir Mafatih al-ghayb, Author: ar-Razi, Volume 003, Page No. 272]


Some people have demurred that this verse was revealed concerning war and so is specific about such situations and cannot be applied to time of peace.

However, we have stated already that reliance is placed on the text not on the backgroung of specific situation. Imam Fakhr udin ar-Razi (rah) has answered this objection.

أن قوله: { وَإِذَا جَاءهُمْ أَمْرٌ مّنَ ٱلأَمْنِ أَوِ ٱلْخَوْفِ } عام في كل ما يتعلق بالحروب وفيما يتعلق بسائر الوقائع الشرعية، لأن الامن والخوف حاصل في كل ما يتعلق بباب التكليف، فثبت أنه ليس في الآية ما يوجب تخصيصها بأمر الحروب.

Translation: Allah's saying and when comes to them any tiding, whether of peace or of fear..... is very general. It encompasses war situations and all legal questions too. War and Peace are such that no chapter of Shari'ah excludes them. there is no word in the verse that might is specific to war.

[Tafsir Mafatih al-ghayb, Author: ar-Razi Volume 003, Page No. 273]


Imam Abu Bakr Jassas ar-Razi (rah)
 has given the same answer in much detail and rejected incidental doubts.

[Tafsir Ahkam ul-Quran Volume 002, Page No. 263. Chapter 'Obedience to the Messenger'


Salafi/wahabi/ghair muqalid interpretation 



This why the well-Known scholer (Nawab Siddiq Hassan Khan) of Salafis has written while citing this verse in support of Qiyas:

فى الاية اشارة الى جواز القياس، وان من العلم .... مايدرك بالاستنباط


Translation: If we do not get from the verse guidance for the times of peace than how do we cite it for validity of Qiyaas.

[Tafsir Fath ul Beyaan, Volume 002, Page No. 33]





Quranic Proof #3 and Tafsir 


Qur'an States:

فَلَوْلاَ نَفَرَ مِن كُلِّ فِرْقَةٍ مِّنْهُمْ طَآئِفَةٌ لِّيَتَفَقَّهُواْ فِي الدِّينِ وَلِيُنذِرُواْ قَوْمَهُمْ إِذَا رَجَعُواْ إِلَيْهِمْ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَحْذَرُونَ

[9:122] So, why should a party from within every group (or tribe) not go forth in order that they may acquire deeper knowledge (i.e. thorough understanding and insight) of Din (Religion), and warn their people when they return to them so that they may guard themselves (against a life of sins and disobedience).

This verse confirm that all members of Muslims must not occupy themselves in works like Jihad and so on. Rather there should be a party of them who occupy themselves day and night to acquire perfect understanding of faith. They may thus teach the commands of Shari'ah. to those who cannot find time to acquire knowledge.

This verse binds the section devoting itself to learning to acquaint other people to the laws of Shari'ah. And, it binds these other people to conduct themselves on the teaching imparted to them by the learned section and thus keep themselves away from disobedience to Allah. This is Taqleed.


Imam Abu bakr Jassas ar-Razi (rah) has said:


فاوجب الحزر بانزارهم والزم المنزرين قبول قولهم

Translation: In this verse, Allah has made it obligatory for the masses that when the Ulama acqaint them (with commands of Shari'ah) then they must preserve themselves (from disobedience to Allah) and obey the Ulama.

[Tafsir Ahkan ul-Qur'an Volume 002, Page No. 262]





Quranic Proof #4 and Tafsir 


Qur'an States:

فَاسْأَلُواْ أَهْلَ الذِّكْرِ إِن كُنتُمْ لاَ تَعْلَمُونَ

[16:43] So if you yourselves do not know (anything), then ask the People of Remembrance.

This verse outlines the principle of guidance that those people who are not experts in Knowledge and sciences may ask the specialists in this field and act accordingly. This is known as Taqleed.

Allama Mahmood Alusi (rah) wrote:


واستدل بها أيضاً على وجوب المراجعة للعلماء فيما لا يعلم. وفي " الإكليل " للجلال السيوطي أنه استدل بها على جواز تقليد العامي في الفروع


Translation: This verse is cited to prove that if is Wajib to refer to the Ulama for such things in Which one lacks Knowledge.Jalal udin al-Suyuti (rah) wrote in "al-Iqleel" that it is deduced from this verse that Taqleed is allowed to the common men for branch issues.

[Tafsir Ruh ul-Ma'ani, Volume 14, Page No. 148]



Some people argue that this verse is specific to a particular situation. The idolators of makkah used to ask why an angel was not sent to them as a Messenger.

In answer, this particular verse was revealed and all its words.

وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا مِن قَبْلِكَ إِلاَّ رِجَالاً نُّوحِي إِلَيْهِمْ فَاسْأَلُواْ أَهْلَ الذِّكْرِ إِن كُنتُمْ لاَ تَعْلَمُونَ

[16:43] And before you also We sent only men as Messengers towards whom We sent Our Revelations. So if you yourselves do not know (anything), then ask the People of Remembrance.

Some exegetes say that the words Ahl ul Dhikr (people having the knowledge - of the message) are the scholers of the people of the book, but some others hold that they are those of them who become Muslims in the Prophet's (Peace Be Upon Him) times. Yet others contend that they are the people of the Quran, Muslims. The verse implies that everyone knows that all the past Prophets (Peace Be Upon Him) were mortal and none of them was an angel. So --- those who disavow Taqleed argue --- thet the context of the verse does not embrace the subject of Taqleed and Ijtihad.

Our answer is that from the point of view of the Text the verse is evidence of Taqleed. We may take whatever meaning of Ahl ul Dhikr (people having the knowledge - of the message), but we are instructed to turn to them because of our personal lack of knowledge. This can be correct only when we concede that 'every unaware should refer to the aware.' It is to this principle that the verse guide us and it is on this basis that we know that Taqleed is valid. We have made it clear curlier that: ("العبرة بعموم اللفظ لالخصوص المورد" Translation: Reliance is placed on the general words of the verse, not on the specific condition for which it is relvealed.)


Therefore, we deduce from the verse the principle that those people who lack knowledge must refer to the knowledgeable. This is Taqleed.

Khateeb Baghdadi (rah) wrote:


اما من يسوغ له التقليد فهو العامى الزى لايعرف طرق الاحكام الشرعية ، فيجوز له ان يقلد عالما ويعمل يقوله ، قال الله تعالى "فَاسْأَلُواْ أَهْلَ الذِّكْرِ إِن كُنتُمْ لاَ تَعْلَمُونَ"


Translation: As for the question who may make Taqleed, it is the masses who do not know the methods of Shari'ah commands. It is allowed to them to make Taqleed of a scholer and conduct themselves on this directions because Allah says --- (Ask the people of the message).

[Khateeb Baghdadi, al-Fiqhiyah al-Mutafiqa Volume 002, Page No. 133]



Taqleed in the Hadith


a hadith is recorded as follows:

Hudhaifa (ra) narrates that the Messenger of Allah (saw) said, “I do not know for how long I will be amongst you. So you follow two people after me – Abu Bakr and Umar.”


[In Mirqaat V.5 pg 349 ]

The word used in the hadith is ‘iqtida’ which means to follow. It is not used to follow a person in administrative affairs but is used to follow them in religious affairs. The same word is used in the Qur’an in Surah 6 verse 90 to mean “follow the prophets (pbut)”.

Hadith # 1
A tradition reported in Bukhari and Muslim is as follows:

Abdullah ibn Amr reported that the Messenger of Allah (saw) said: “Definitely Allah will not remove knowledge from the world by raising it from the hearts of men but knowledge will be rised by calling the ‘ulema (to Him) till when there are none of them left, then people will make the ignorant their chiefs. They will be asked and they will issue fatawa without knowledge. Being misguided themselves, they will misguide others too.”

[Sahih Muslim Book 34 Hadith 6465 ]


This hadith makes it clear that to derive a ruling and give a fatwa is the job of the ‘ulema and not a common man.


Another important point in the hadith is that it talks of a time when there will not be any ‘ulema left and ignorant people will be giving fatawa. In such a time, how will one follow Islam if it will not be through taqleed of the writings of the scholars who have passed away?

Hadith # 2

In Saheeh Bukhari is the following hadith:

Abu Sa’eed al Khudri (ra) has reported that some Sahabah began to come late for salah. So, the Prophet (saw) encouraged them to come early and join the front rows in prayer. He also said, “Observe me and follow me and those after you will observe you and follow you.”

[Sahih Muslim Book 4 Hadith 878 ]
One meaning of the hadith is the apparent one that the people behind the front rows will follow them.

However Ibn Hajar in Fath al Bari writes:

“Some people have said that this hadith means you learn the commands of Shari’ah from me and the tabi’een following you will learn from you and this would go on one after another till the world ends.”


Similar to these there are many ahadith that clearly contain the concept of taqleed in them. It is an ignorant statement to make that one cannot find taqleed in the hadith.


Taqleed during times of Sahabah (ra) & Tabi’een (rh)


Absolute Taqleed & Taqleed Shakhsi during times of Sahabah (ra) & Tabi’een (rh)


Shah Waliullah (rh) states 


in “Fayoosul Haramain
” that taqleed was prevalent in the blessed era of the Sahabah (ra) and Tabi’een (ra) without objection.


People who were not occupied in gaining knowledge or could not deduce a particular issue using their own ijtihad, consulted other jurist Sahabah (ra).


First we will see some examples of absolute taqleed also known as taqleed mutlaq.


In Majma’ uz Zawaid the following is recorded:


Ibn ‘Abbas said that Umar (ra) delivered a sermon at Jabiyah saying, “O People! If anyone wishes to ask anything about the Qur’an, he must go to Ubayy ibn Ka’b (ra). He, who wishes to know about injunctions on inheritance, must go to Zayd bin Thabit (ra). And one who intends to learn about fiqh must go to Mu’az ibn Jabal (ra). And if anyone wishes to know about wealth and property he must come to me because Allah (swt) has made me its guardian and distributor.


In the above hadith, Umar (ra) informed the people about those who excelled in certain fields and told them to approach them and rely on their opinions in concerned matters. This is nothing but taqleed.


Hadith # 3

In Muwatta Imam Malik it is stated:

“Saalim (rh) said that someone asked Abdullah ibn Umar (ra) that a man borrowed some amount of money from another for a specified period. The creditor was willing to waive a portion of the debt if the debtor repaid before the due date. Ibn Umar (ra) did not like it and he disallowed it.”


[ Malik Book 31 Hadith 31.38.83 ]

This question is not answered by any clear hadith which can go back to the Prophet Muhammad (saw) and thus Ibn Umar did ijtihad
. Neither the person enquiring asked for any reason for the ruling, nor was any reason given by Ibn Umar (ra). The ruling of Ibn Umar (ra) was acted upon. If this is not taqleed then what is?

Shah Waliullah, said:

“The Sahabah (ra) were spread in different countries and in every place one Sahabi was followed, for example:


Mecca: Ibn Abbas (ra)
Medina: Zayd Ibn Thabit (ra)
Kufa: Abdullah Ibn Mas’ud (ra)
Yemen: Mu’az (ra)
Basra: Anas (ra)”



Just like there are numerous examples of Absolute Taqleed in the times of the Sahabah (ra), there are abundant evidences of Taqleed Shakhsi during the times of the Sahabah (ra) and Tabi’een (rh).

Hadith # 4

In Sahih Bukhari a tradition is recorded as follows:

Ikramah (rh) reported: Some people of Madina ask Ibn Abbas about the woman who menstruated after the fard tawaf. (Should she wait to perform tawaf wada or may return without performing it?) He said, “She may go home (without performing it).” The people of Madina said, “We cannot act on your ruling and forsake Zayd ibn Thabit’s ruling.”


This incident is also reported by Qatadah in Musnad Abu Dawood Tiyalsi. The people of Madina are quoted to have said:


“O Ibn Abbas! We will not follow you in the matter you disagree with Zayd ibn Thabit.” He replied, “Ask Umm Sulaym (ra) (when you go to Madina whether my ruling is correct).


The people of Madina adhered to the ruling of Zayd ibn Thabit (ra) despite the fact that Ibn Abbas (ra) gave them ahadith of Umm Sulaym (ra). Is this not taqleed shakhsi?


Also note that Ibn Abbas (ra) did not say that they are committing a sin by doing taqleed shakhsi or they are committing polytheism or anything of that sort.


Ibn Abbas (ra) simply told them to refer to Umm Sulaym and then refer the matter back to Zayd (ra). As explain in Muslim, Bayhaqi etc, when this matter was re-referred to Zayd (ra), he changed his verdict.


A question arises. When people of Madina made taqleed to Zayd (ra), why would they investigate the hadith of Umm Sulaym (ra)?

Hadith # 5

In Malik Mawtta it is mentioned:

Huzayl Ibn Shurahbeel (rh) reported that someone asked Abu Musa Ash’ari (ra) a ruling. He gave an answer but also advised them to ask Abdullah ibn Mas’ud (ra). They went to him and told him that they had asked Abu Musa Ash’ari already. His ruling was contrary to Abu Musa Ash’ari (ra). When Abu Musa Ash’ari (ra) was told about this, he said, “Do not ask me (for rulings) as long as this great scholar is among you.”


[Malik Book 30 Hadith 30.2.14 ]


Musnad Imam Ahmed
 also records this narration but the words in it are:


“As long as this major scholar is among you, do not ask me anything.”


This was a clear example of Abu Musa Ash’ari (ra) recommending the taqleed shakhsi of Abdullah Ibn Mas’ud (ra).

Hadith # 6

In Abu Dawood is the following famous tradition:


Mu’az ibn Jabal (ra) reported that when Allah’s Messenger (saw) sent him to Yaman, he asked him how he would decide cases when they were brought to him. He said, “According to Allah’s Book.” The Prophet (saw) asked, “If you do not find them there?”
“Then according to your Sunnah.”
“But if they are not there?”


Mu’az said, “I will make ijtihad and extract judgment with my opinion (and try to arrive at a true conclusion), not being negligent in that.”

The Prophet (saw) was pleased and patted him lightly on the chest saying, “All praise belongs to Allah Who caused the envoy of Allah’s Messenger (saw) to conform to what pleases Allah’s Messenger (saw).”


[ sunan Abu Dawud Book 24 Hadith 3585 ]


Ibn Qayyim’s (rh) says about this hadith
 "that none of the narrators of this hadith is a liar or in any way defective. Besides, he has also named another chain of narrators for this Hadith:

Ubadah ibn Nusayi from Abdur Rahman from Ghanam from Mu’az (ra).
He has written that (the sanad and the narrators are known for reliability).
Also on reference to Khatib Baghdadi that the Hadith is worth citing for encouragement of the ummah. (I’lam al-Muqi’een)”
[end quote]

So we see that Prophet Muhammad (saw) sent Mu’az (ra) as a governor, judge, teacher and mujtahid to the people of Yamanand bound them to obey him. He was also given permission to issue a verdict on his personal judgment. The people of Yaman were permitted to make taqleed of an individual. The prophet (saw) made it binding to him.

Hadith # 7

Another clear example of taqleed shakhsi is given by Ibn Jarir (rh). According to him, six of the seven readings of the Qur’an were abolished by Uthman (ra). From the time of the prophet Muhammad (saw) down to the time of this event, reading from all of the seven readings was allowed.

Ibn Hajar (rh) is quoted in Tafsir ibn Jarir:



“In the same way, the ummah were instructed to protect the Qur’an, and to recite it. They were allowed to choose one of the seven ways of reciting. Then the same ummah made it binding on them that they would retain only one recital and recite according to that, and forego the remaining six recitals.”

Ibn Jariri answers possible objections:



“That which those people did was wajib on them. Whatever they did was for the good of Islam and the followers of Islam. Hence, it was better for them to do this than to keep Islam and its people open to harm (by retaining all the seven recitals).” (Tafseer Ibn Jarir, Muqaddamah)


Taqleed by Glorious Tabeen [Salafs] 


Many tabi’een have reported that they chose to follow one or another Sahabi (ra).


In I’lam al-Muqi’een by Ibn Qayyim
 the following narrations are reported:


1Imam Sha’bi (rh) said“To whom it pleases to gain authority in judgment let him adopt the sayings of Umar (ra).”

2. Mujahid (rh) said“When people disagree about an affair, see how Umar (ra) acted. Thus, follow him.

3. Imam A’mash (rh) said about Ibrahim Nakh’ee (rh), “When Umar (ra) and Ibn Mas’ud (rh) agreed about a question, Ibrahim Nakh’ee (rh) did not regard any verdict equal to theirs. But when they differed, he went by Abdullah’s (Ibn Mas’ud) verdict.”
Shah Waliullah (rh) in al-Baligha has written:


“They (ibn Abbas and other Sahabah) differed in many rulings and many from the people of Mecca gave preference to his (ibn Abbas’s) rulings over others.”

To give preference to the rulings of one person over others is Taqleed Shakhsi.


All these were just a couple of examples given from the large database of evidences proving taqleed shakhsi i.e. taqleed of an individual during the times of the Sahabah (ra) and Tabi’een (rh).


Taqlid is done by Ahlus sunnah wa jammah [sawad us azam] and IJMA [majority]


Taqlid is done by majority of muslims today which according to Sahih hadiths makes the decision not only according to Quran and acts of Sahabas [ra] but also Ijma and ahlus sunnah. On other hand Wahabis are themselves divided into no less than 2 to 3 subsects one of them are Salafis/ghair muqalids who don't believe in Taqlid where as even Saudi Wahabis are hanbalis. So out of 3-4% wahabis which is their Max number in muslim ummah Salafis hardly make 1%

Now the following Hadith will be presented to prove that doing Taqlid which ahlus sunnah wa jammah [majority group] does and majority of past scholars did is must for laymen muslims

Hadith # 1


Transliteration : Alaykum bi al-jama`a fa innallaha la yajma`u ummata Muhammadin `ala dalala

Translation : "You have to follow the Congregation for verily Allah will not make the largest group of Muhammad's Community agree on error

[ Reference : Ibn Abi Shayba relates it with a sound chain as hadith # 354 ] 



Hadith # 2


Allah will never let my Ummah agree upon misguidance
, and the hand of Allah is over the group (Jama'ah), so follow the great mass of believers (Sawad ul-'Azam), and whoever dissents from them departs to hell

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[A narration "AUTHENTICATED" and reported by al-Hakim (1/116), and al-Dhahabi agreed with him][/COLOR]



Hadith # 3


La yajma`ullahu ummati `ala dalala

"Verily Allah will not make my Community agree on error


[ Reference:Tirmidhi with a fair (hasan) chain ]

Hadith # 4


Inna Allaha la yajma`u ummati -- aw qala: ummata Muhammadin --`ala dalalatin wa yadullahi ma` al-jama`a

"Verily Allah will not make my Community -- or Muhammad's Community -- agree on error, and Allah's hand is with the largest Congregation.
"

[Reference :Tirmidhi (gharib) #2256, Cairo ed. `Aridat al-ahwadhi (11:9)]


Note here that above hadith is called Gharib but a Gharib hadith is not necessarily Daeef, even if we agree it is that Authentic hadith of Imam Hakim [rah] makes it Sahih as wordings are same. What wahabis mostly do is to show only one chain and claim all hadiths are Daeef which is misguiding ignorant people actually.



Hadith # 5


Man arada minkum bi habuhat al-jannati fal yulzim al-jama`at

"Whoever among you wants to be in the middle of Paradise, let him cling to the Congregation."

[Reference : Tirmidhi related it and said it is sound (sahih).] 



Hadith # 6


Inna al-shaytana dhaybun ka dhayb al-ghanam ya'khudh al-shat al-qasiya wal-najiya fa iyyakum wal-shu`aab wa `alaykum bil-jama`ati wal-`aammati wal-masjid

"Shaytan is a wolf like the wolf that preys on sheep, taking the isolated and the stray among them; therefore, avoid factionalism and keep to the Congregation and the collective and the masjid."


[Reference: Ahmad relates it through Mu`adh and through Abu Dharr, the two chains being respectively fair [hasan] and sound [sahih] according to Haythami in Majma` al-zawa'id 6/123]



Hadith # 7


Inna ummati la tajtami`u `ala dalalatin fa idha ra'aytum al-ikhtilaf fa `alaykum bi al-sawad al-a`zam.

"My Community shall never agree upon misguidance, therefore, if you see divergences, you must follow the greater mass or larger group


References 


► Ibn Majah (2:1303 #3950) from Anas with a weak chain.

► Imam Ahmad narrates it mawquf through three sound chains to Abu Umama al-Bahili and Ibn Abi Awfa. However, it is marfu` to the Prophet from Abu Umama by Ibn Abi Shayba in his Musannaf as well as Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, the latter two's narration stating that Abu Umama heard this from the Prophet up to seven times. Bayhaqi in al-Madkhal narrates something similar from Ibn `Abbas.

Above hadith came from multiple chains, one daeef [weak] and three other Sahih ones.


Hadith # 8


Lan tajtami`a ummati `ala dalalatin fa `alaykum bi al-jama`ati fa inna yadullahi `ala al-jama`a.

"My Community shall not agree upon misguidance. Therefore, you must stay with the Congregation, and Allah's hand is over the Congregation.


[Reference:
 Tabarani narrated it with two chains from Ibn `Umar, one of which is sound (sahih). See Haythami, Majma` al-zawa'id, chapter on the obligation to stay with the Congregation.]


Hadith # 9


Innallaha qad ajara ummati min an tajtami`a `ala dalala

"Verily Allah has protected my Community from agreeing upon error."


[Ibn Abi `Asim narrated it in the Sunna and Wahabi so called mujtahid Albani declared it hasan in his Silsila sahiha (3:319).]




Hadith # 11


Sahih Bukhari Book 56 Hadith 803 

Narrated Hudhaifa bin Al-Yaman:
,
..... He said, "Yes, there will be some people who will invite others to the doors of Hell, and whoever accepts their invitation to it will be thrown in it (by them)." I said, "O Allah's Apostle! Describe those people to us." He said, "They will belong to us and speak our language (i.e Arabic) " I asked, "What do you order me to do if such a thing should take place in my life?"
,
He said, "Adhere to the CONGREGATION OF MUSLIMS and their Chief.
" I asked, "If there is neither a group (of Muslims) nor a chief (what shall I do)?" He said, "Keep away from all those different sects, even if you had to bite (i.e. eat) the root of a tree, till you meet Allah while you are still in that state."[END]

So if Congregation of muslims [sawad us adham ] is not available one is advised to keep away from all smaller sects according to sahih bukhari


Hadith # 12


Yadu Allah `ala al-jama`a

"Allah's hand is over the group."


[Sunan Tirmidhi , Hadith termed hasan]

al-Munawi said:
 "Allah's hand is over the group means His protection and preservation for them, signifying that the collectivity of the people of Islam are in Allah's fold, so be also in Allah's shelter, in the midst of them, and do not separate yourselves from them. Whoever diverges from the overwhelming majority concerning what is lawful and unlawful and on which the Community does not differ has slipped off the path of guidance and this will lead him to hell.

[al-Munawi, Sharh al-Jami` al-saghir 3:449]



Hadith # 13


Yadu Allah `ala al-jama`at wa man shadhdha shadhdha ila al-nar.

"Allah's hand is over the group, and whoever dissents from them departs to hell

[Tirmidhi (gharib) from Ibn `Umar, al-Hakim both from Ibn `Umar and Ibn `Abbas, and Ibn Jarir from Ibn `Umar.]



Hadith # 14


Yadu Allah `ala al-jama`a, ittabi`u al-sawad al-a`zam fa innahu man shadhdha shadhdha ila al-nar.

"Allah's hand is over the group, follow the largest mass, for verily whoever dissents from them departs to hell


[ Narrated by al-Hakim and al-Tabari from Ibn `Abbas, and al-Lalika'i in al-Sunna and al-Hakim also narrated it from Ibn `Umar.]



Hadith # 15


Man faraqa al-jama`ata shibran mata maytatan Jahiliyya.

"Whoever leaves the Community or separates himself from it by the length of a span, dies the death of the Jahiliyya (period of ignorance prior to Islam)"

[Sahih Muslim (Imara #55) through Ibn `Abbas. Muslim relates it with slight variations through three more chains. Ibn Abi Shayba also relates it in his Musannaf.]




Hadith # 16


Abu Ghalib said that during the crisis with the Khawarij in Damascus he saw Abu Umama one day and he was crying. He asked him what made him cry and he replied: "They followed our religion," then he mentioned what was going to happen to them tomorrow. Abu Ghalib said: "Are you saying this according to your opinion or from something you heard the Prophet say?" Abu Umama said: "What I just told you I did not hear from the Prophet only once, or twice, or three times, but more than seven times. Did you not read this verse in Al `Imran: The day faces will be white and faces will be dark..."? (3:106) to the end of the verse. Then he said: I heard the Prophet say: "The Jews separated into 71 sects, 70 of which are in the fire; the Christians into 72 sects, 71 of which are in the fire; and this Community will separate into 73 sects, all of them are in the fire except one which will enter Paradise." We said: "Describe it for us." He said: "The Sawad al-a`zam [the majority group ] ."

[Reference : Haythami said in Majma` al-zawa'id: Tabarani narrated it in al-Mu`jam al-kabir and al-Awsat, and its all narrators are trustworthy (thiqat) This hadith is Sahih ]




Hadith # 17


Sataftariqu ummati `ala thalathat wa sab`ina firqatin kulluhum fil nari ila millatin wahidat, qalu man hiya ya rasulallah, qala ma ana `alayhi wa as-habi

"My Community will split into seventy-three sects. All of them will be in the fire except one group. They asked: Who are they, O Messenger of Allah? He said: Those that follow my way and that of my companions."

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[ Sunan tirmidhi 18:2650, sunan Abu Dawud, and al-Darimi related it.]
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Hadith # 18


What is meaning of word Sawad us Azam according to Sahih hadiths itself



لَمَّا أُسْرِيَ بِالنَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ جَعَلَ يَمُرُّ بِالنَّبِيِّ وَالنَّبِيَّيْنِ وَمَعَهُمْ الْقَوْمُ وَالنَّبِيِّ وَالنَّبِيَّيْنِ وَمَعَهُمْ الرَّهْطُ وَالنَّبِيِّ وَالنَّبِيَّيْنِ وَلَيْسَ مَعَهُمْ أَحَدٌ حَتَّى مَرَّ بِسَوَادٍ عَظِيمٍ فَقُلْتُ مَنْ هَذَا قِيلَ مُوسَى وَقَوْمُهُ وَلَكَنِ ارْفَعْ رَأْسَكَ فَانْظُرْ قَالَ فَإِذَا سَوَادٌ عَظِيمٌ قَدْ سَدَّ الْأُفُقَ مِنْ ذَا الْجَانِبِ وَمِنْ ذَا الْجَانِبِ فَقِيلَ هَؤُلَاءِ أُمَّتُكَ وَسِوَى هَؤُلَاءِ مِنْ أُمَّتِكَ سَبْعُونَ أَلْفًا يَدْخُلُونَ الْجَنَّةَ بِغَيْرِ حِسَابٍ فَدَخَلَ وَلَمْ يَسْأَلُوهُ وَلَمْ يُفَسِّرْ لَهُمْ فَقَالُوا نَحْنُ هُمْ وَقَالَ قَائِلُونَ هُمْ أَبْنَاؤُنَا الَّذِينَ وُلِدُوا عَلَى الْفِطْرَةِ وَالْإِسْلَامِ فَخَرَجَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَقَالَ هُمْ الَّذِينَ لَا يَكْتَوُونَ وَلَا يَسْتَرْقُونَ وَلَا يَتَطَيَّرُونَ وَعَلَى رَبِّهِمْ يَتَوَكَّلُونَ فَقَامَ عُكَّاشَةُ بْنُ مِحْصَنٍ فَقَالَ أَنَا مِنْهُمْ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ قَالَ نَعَمْ ثُمَّ قَامَ آخَرُ فَقَالَ أَنَا مِنْهُمْ فَقَالَ سَبَقَكَ بِهَا عُكَّاشَةُ



Sayyidina Ibn Abbas (RA) narrated: When the Prophet (SAW) was taken to the (heavens for the) mi’raj, he passed by a Prophet and Prophets with whom were a group of people, a Propher and Prophets with whom was a raht, a Prophet and Prophets with whom was nobody till he passed by a great multitude (sawad us azam) . He asked. “Who is this?” He was told, “Musa and his people, but raise your head and see.” He said, “I saw a great multitude that had plugged the horizon from this side barricaded the horizon from that side.” He was told, “These are you ummah and apart from these there are seventy thousand of your ummah who will enter paradise without any accounting.” Then he came (home) and they did not ask him and he did not explain to them. They said (to one another), “We are among them.” And some said, “they are the children born on nature and on Islam.’ The Prophet came out and said, “They are those who do not have themselves cauterised or treated with incantation (charms) , or believe in omens, but on their Lord do they rely. Ukashah ibn Mihsan got up and said, “Am I one of them,O Messenger of , “Yes.” Then another came and asked, “Am I one of them?” He said, “Ukashah overtook you in that.”

[Sahih Bukhari 5752,Sahih Muslim 220, Ahmed 2448, sunan tirmidhi 17:2454]

From above Hadiths following things can be seen 


► The hadith of sawad us azam [following majority] comes from several chains. From many Sahih chains and few weak , Please be careful because Wahabis [salafis] misquote and show only Daeef chains to misguide others where as if same words are present in Sahih chains or hasan ones than Daeef hadith itself is termed as Sahih.

► The term Congregation [jama'h] and Sawad us azam [ largest group] are used to define same group of muslims which will be on right path.

► The Largest group or congregation of muslims will follow Quran and sunnah and way of Sahabas [ra] as well. Like Ahlus sunnah does. 


Classical Scholars of Ahlus sunnah support Taqlid 


Imam Al Bayhaqi [rah]

in his book al-Madkhal and al-Zarkashi in his Tadhkirah fi al-ahadith al-mushtaharah relate:

Imam al-Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr al-Siddiq said: "The differences among the Companions of Muhammad are a mercy for Allah's servants."

al-Hafiz al Iraqi the teacher of Ibn Hajar al-`Asqalani 
said:

This is a saying of al-Qasim ibn Muhammad who said: The difference of opinion among the Companions of Muhammad is a mercy.

Bayhaqi and Zarkashi also said:

Qutada said
: `Umar ibn `Abd al-`Aziz used to say: "I would dislike it if the Companions of Muhammad did not differ among them, because had they not differed there would be no leeway (for us)."

Al-Hafiz Ibn al-Athir [rah]

in the introduction to his Jami al-usul fi ahadith al-rasul relates the above saying from Imam Malik who said " The difference of opinion among the Companions of Muhammad is a mercy"

This quote of Imam Malik is sound according to al-Hafiz Ibn al-Mulaqqin in his Tuhfat al-muhtaj ila adillat al-Minhaj and Ibn al-Subki in his Tabaqat al-Shafi`iyya.

Bayhaqi
 also relates in al-Madkhal pg #205 and Zarkashi in the Tadhkira:

al-Layth ibn Sa`d said on the authority of Yahya ibn Sa`id: "The people of knowledge are the people of flexibility (tawsi`a). Those who give fatwas never cease to differ, and so this one permits something while that one forbids it, without one finding fault with the other when he knows of his position."


Al-Hafiz al-Sakhawi [rah] 

said in his Maqasid al-hasana p. 49 #39 after quoting the above:

I have read the following written in my shaykh's (al-Hafiz ibn Hajar) handwriting: "The hadith of Layth is a reference to a very famous hadith of the Prophet, cited by Ibn al-Hajib in the Mukhtasar in the section on qiyas (analogy), which says: "Difference of opinion in my Community is a mercy for people" (ikhtilafu ummati rahmatun li al-Nas). There is a lot of questioning about its authenticity, and many of the imams of learning have claimed that it has no basis (la asla lahu). However, al-Khattabi mentions it in the context of a digression in Gharib al-hadith... and what he says concerning the tracing of the hadith is not free from imperfection, but he makes it known that it does have a basis in his opinion."


Al-`Iraqi [rah] 


mentions all of the above (1-5) in his Mughni `an haml al-asfar and adds:

What is meant by "the Community" in this saying is those competent for practicing legal reasoning (al-muhtahidun) in the branches of the law, wherein reasoning is permissible.


What `Iraqi meant by saying "the branches wherein reasoning is permissible" is that difference is not allowed in matters of doctrine, since there is agreement that there is only one truth in the essentials of belief and anyone, whether a muhtahid or otherwise, who takes a different view automatically renounces Islam as stated by Shawkani.

[al-Shawkani, Irshad al-Fuhul p. 259 as quoted in Mohammad Hashim Kamali, Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence p. 383.]


Ibn Hazm [rah]

said in al-Ihkam fi usul al-ahkam (5:64):


The saying "Difference of opinion in my Community is a mercy" is the most perverse saying possible, because if difference were mercy, agreement would be anger, and it is impossible for a Muslim to say this, because there can only be either agreement, or difference, and there can only be either mercy, or anger.

Imam Nawawi refuted
 this view in his Commentary on Sahih Muslim:

If something (i.e. agreement) is a mercy it is not necessary for its opposite to be the opposite of mercy. No-one makes this binding, and no-one even says this except an ignoramus or one who affects ignorance. Allah the Exalted said: "And of His mercy He has made night for you so that you would rest in it" (28:73), and He has named night a mercy: it does not necessarily ensue from this that the day is a punishment.



al-Khattabi

said in Gharib al-hadith:

Difference of opinion in religion is of three kinds:

· In affirming the Creator and His Oneness: to deny it is disbelief;

· In His attributes and will: to deny them is innovation;

· In the different rulings of the branches of the law (ahkam al-furu`): Allah has made them mercy and generosity for the scholars, and that is the meaning of the hadith: "Difference of opinion in my Community is a mercy."

[al-Jarrahi cited it in Kashf al-khafa 1:64 #153.]



Imam Jalal ud din Al Suyuti [rah] 


Alusi in Tafsir Roh Al maani


Quran Surah Nahl (16) verse 43


وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا مِن قَبْلِكَ إِلاَّ رِجَالاً نُّوحِي إِلَيْهِمْ فَاسْأَلُواْ أَهْلَ الذِّكْرِ إِن كُنتُمْ لاَ تَعْلَمُونَ

We did not send (messengers) before you other than men whom We inspired with revelation. So, ask the people (having the knowledge) of the Reminder (the earlier Scriptures), if you do not know.
 (16:43)


Allamah Alusi (rah) in Ruh al Ma’ani states:



واستدل بها أيضاً على وجوب المراجعة للعلماء فيما لا يعلم.

وفي " الإكليل " للجلال السيوطي أنه استدل بها على جواز تقليد العامي في الفروع وانظر التقييد بالفروعلتقييد فإن الظاهر العموم
,


Translation : “This verse is cited to prove that it is wajib to refer to the ulama for such things in which one lacks knowledge

. Allamah Jalalauddin Suyuti (rh) wrote in Ikeel that it is deduced from this verse that taqleed is allowed to the common men for branch issues.” 


[ Tafsir Roh Al maani for 16:43 ] 


Imam Jalal ud din Suyuti [rah]
 says in his short treatise Jazil al-mawahib fi ikhtilaf al-madhahib (The abundant grants concerning the differences among the schools):

The hadith "Difference of opinion in my Community is a mercy for people" has many benefits among which are the fact that the Prophet foretold of the differences that would arise after his time among the madhahib in the branches of the law, and this is one of his miracles because it is a foretelling of things unseen. Another benefit is his approval of these differences and his confirmation of them because he characterizes them as a mercy. Another benefit is that the legally responsible person can choose to follow whichever he likes among them. [After citing the saying of `Umar ibn `Abd al-`Aziz already quoted (#3 above), Suyuti continues:] This indicates that what is meant is their differences in the rulings in the branches of the law.


Muhaddith al-Samhudi

The muhaddith al-Samhudi relates al-Hafiz Ibn al-Salah's discussion of Imam Malik's saying concerning difference of opinion among the Companions: "Among them is the one that is wrong and the one that is right: therefore you must exercise ijtihad." Samhudi said:

Clearly, it refers to differences in legal rulings (ahkam). Ibn al-Salah said: "This is different from what Layth said concerning the flexibility allowed for the Community, since this applies exclusively to the muhtahid as he said: "you must exercise ijtihad," because the muhtahid's competence makes him legally responsible (mukallaf) to exercise ijtihad and there is no flexibility allowed for him over the matter of their difference. The flexibility applies exclusively to the unqualified follower (muqallid). The people meant in the saying: "Difference of opinion in my Community is a mercy for people" are those unqualified followers. As for the import of Malik's saying "Among the Companions is the one that is wrong and the one that is right," it is meant only as an answer to those who say that the muhtahid is able to follow the Companions. It is not meant for others.



Imam Abu Hanifa [rah] 

said in the shorter version of al-Fiqh al-Akbar:

Difference of opinion in the Community is a token of divine mercy.



Ibn Qudama al-Hanbali

said in al-`Aqa'id p.89

The difference in opinion in the Community is a mercy, and their agreement is a proof.


Ibn Taymiyya

in the Mukhtasar al-fatawa al-misriyya says:

al-a'imma ijtima`uhum hujjatun qati`atun wa ikhtilafuhum rahmatun wasi`a -- The Consensus of the Imams [of fiqh] on a question is a definitive proof, and their divergence of opinion is a vast mercy... If one does not follow any of the four Imams [of fiqh]... then he is completely in error, for the truth is not found outside of these four in the whole Shari`a


[Ibn Taymiyya, Mukhtasar al-fatawa al-misriyya (Cairo, 1980) p. 35, 54.]

al-Shatibi 

in Kitab al-i`tisam said
:

A large group of the Salaf deemed the differences of the Community in the branches of the Law to be one of the paths of Allah's mercy...


The exposition of the fact that the aforesaid difference is a mercy is what is narrated from al-Qasim ibn Muhammad (ibn Abi Bakr al-Siddiq)'s words: "Allah has made us gain through the differences among the Companions of Allah's Messenger in their practice." No one practices according to the practice of one of them except he (al-Qasim) considered it to be within the fold of correctness.

Dumra ibn Raja' narrated: 
`Umar ibn `Abd al-`Aziz and al-Qasim ibn Muhammad met and began to review the hadiths. `Umar then began to mention things which differed from what al-Qasim mentioned, and al-Qasim would give him trouble regarding it until the matter became clearer. `Umar said to him: "Don't do that! (i.e. don't question the difference.) I dislike stripping the favors (of Allah) from their differences."

Ibn Wahb also narrated from al-Qasim that he said
"I was pleased by the saying of `Umar ibn `Abd al-`Aziz: I would dislike it if the Companions of Muhammad did not differ among them, because if there were only one view then the people would be in difficulty. Verily the Companions are Imams which one uses for guidance (innahum a'immatun yuqtada bihim). If someone follows the saying of one of them, that is Sunna."

The meaning of this is that they (the Companions) have opened wide for people the door of scholarly striving (ijtihad) and of the permissibility of difference in striving. If they had not opened it, the muhtahids would be in a bind, because the extent of ijtihad and that of opinions do not generally agree: the people who exert striving would then, despite their obligation to follow what they are convinced of, be obliged to follow what differs with them, and this is a kind of unbearable legal obligation and one of the greatest binds.

Allah therefore gave the Community generous leeway in the existence of disagreement in the branches of the law among them. This is the door that He opened for the Community to enter into this mercy. How then could they possibly not be meant by "those on whom thy Lord has mercy" in the verses "Yet they cease not differing, save those on whom thy Lord has mercy" (11:118-119)?! Therefore, their difference in the branches of the Law are like their agreement in them (in the fact that both consist in mercy), and praise belongs to Allah.

[al-Shatibi, al-I`tisam 3:11; or (1995 Beirut ed.) p. 395]


al-Shatibi also said in al-Muwafaqat (4:119):
 "Whatever is open to ijtihad is open to difference of opinion among those who make ijtihad, due to differences in circumstances or perspective."

Ibn `Abd al-Barr said in Jami` bayan al-`ilm:

The ulama are in agreement that it is permissible, for whoever looks into the differing opinions of the Prophet's Companions, to follow the position of whomever he likes among them. The same holds for whoever looks into the positions of the Imams other than the Companions, as long as he does not know that he has erred by contradicting the text of the Qur'an or Sunna or the Consensus of the scholars, in which case he cannot follow the above position. However, if this contradiction is not clear to him in any of the three respects mentioned, then it is permissible for him to follow the saying in question even if he does not know whether it is right or wrong, for he is in the realm of the common people (al-`amma) for whom it is permissible to imitate the scholar upon asking him something, even without knowing the bases of the answer...

al-`Uqayli mentioned that Muhammad ibn `Abd al-Rahman al-Sayrafi said: I asked Ahmad ibn Hanbal: "If the Companions of the Prophet differed regarding a certain question, is it permissible for us to check their positions to see who among them is right so that we may follow him?" He replied: "It is not permissible to check on the Prophet's Companions (la yajuz alnazar bayna ashabi rasulillah)." I said: "Then what is the procedure in this?" He replied: "You follow whichever of them you like."[32]

Abu Dawud narrates that Ibn Mas`ud had censured `Uthman for completing the prayer while travelling (i.e. rather than shortening it to two cycles instead of four), yet when he prayed behind `Uthman he performed four cycles and did not shorten it. When this was pointed out to him he said: "Dissent is an evil" (al-khilafu sharr). (That is: dissent in the lines of prayer, or in the unity of Muslims.) Abu Dawud mentioned al-Zuhri's explanation that `Uthman had prayed four rak`at at Mina instead of two because that year the beduins had come in great numbers and he wished to teach them that the prayer consisted in four cycles.[33]

Ibn Abi Zayd al-Qayrawani
 related in his Jami` fi al-sunan that Ibn Mas`ud said:

Whoever wishes to follow the Sunna, let him follow the Sunna of those that died (i.e. keep to the practice of the Companions). Those are the Prophet's Companions. They were the best of this Community, the purest of heart, the deepest in knowledge, and the scarcest in discourse. They were a people Allah chose for His Prophet's company and the establishment of His Religion. Therefore be aware of their superiority and follow them in their views, and hold fast to whatever you are able from their manners and their lives. Verily they were on a straight path.[34]

Ibn Qudama al-Hanbali


in the introduction to his manual of fiqh entitled al-Mughni (1:22f.) relates the following examples of the great Imams' occasional practice of positions contrary to their ijtihad:

· Abu Hanifa, Muhammad al-Shaybani, and Abu Yusuf's position is that ablution is nullified by bleeding. Yet when Abu Yusuf saw that Harun al-Rashid stood for prayer after being cupped without performing ablution, based on Malik's fatwa for him -- since bleeding does not annul ablution in Malik's view -- he prayed behind al-Rashid, and did not repeat his prayer. That is: he considered the prayer valid, and that therefore the ablution is not nullified for one who follows Malik's fatwa.

· [U]Another time Abu Yusuf[/U] performed ghusl and prayed Jum`a in congregation, then he was told that a dead mouse had been found in the tank of the bath water. He did not repeat the prayer but said: "We shall follow in the matter the opinion of our brothers from the Hijaz (i.e. school of Malik): If the quantity of water is more than two pitchers' worth, the water is still pure (if a dead mouse is found in it)."

· When Shafi`i prayed the dawn prayer with the Hanafis at the grave of Abu Hanifa in Baghdad, he did not make the supplication after rising from bowing in the second cycle of prayer as is required in his own school but not in the Hanafi.

· Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal opinion is similar to the Hanafis' concerning the necessity of ablution after cupping. Yet when he was asked: "Can one pray behind the Imam who stands up to lead prayer after being cupped without having renewed his ablution?" he replied: "How could I not pray behind Malik and Sa`id al-Musayyib?" and, in another narration: "Can I forbid you from praying behind So-and-so?" That is: behind the Imams who do not consider it necessary to renew ablution.

[Ibn Qudama, Muqaddimat al-Mughni 1:22.]


· Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal also declared that one must pronounce the basmala loud when leading the prayer in Madina -- although this is contrary to his general view in the matter -- due to the fact that the majority of the people of Madina follow the school of Malik, which requires it. Ibn Taymiyya mentions it in his Qa`ida fi tawahhud al-milla.
[COLOR="rgb(139, 0, 0)"]
[Ibn Taymiyya, Qa`ida fi tawahhud al-milla p. 174][/COLOR]


Views of Imam Nawawi [rah] and Ibn Hajar Asqalani [rah]
 on Sahih bukhari and Sahih muslim hadiths.


In Bukhari and Muslim from Ibn `Umar
:

On the day of the battle of al-Ahzab (the battle of the Trench) the Prophet said (to a travelling party): "Let none of you pray the `Asr prayer [in Muslim also: the Zuhr prayer] except after reaching the Banu Qurayza." The `Asr prayer became due for some of them on the way. Some of those said: "We will not offer it till we reach the Banu Qurayza," while others said: "Rather, we will pray at this spot, for the Prophet did not mean that for us." Later on it was mentioned to the Prophet and he did not take to task any of the two groups.


Following are Imam Nawawi's and Ibn Hajar's views of this hadith.

Imam Nawawi in Sharh Sahih Muslim said
 in commenting on the hadith of the Companions' difference in praying `Asr following the Prophet's order is that he considers that every muhtahid can be correct. He said:

In this hadith there is evidence for those who act upon the understanding and according to analogy and in attending to the meaning of words, and also to those who stick to the external letter; there is also evidence that the muhtahid must not be taken to task in what he did through his ijtihad if he did his best. And it can be inferred from this that every muhtahid is correct (wa qad yustadallu bihi `ala an kulla muhtahidin musib). Those who take the opposite view can say that the Prophet did not manifest which of the two sides was correct, but he did not take them to task. There is no disagreement that the muhtahid is not taken to task even if he was mistaken, if he did his utmost in striving. And Allah knows best
.

[(Kitab al-Jihad, Ch. 23, al-Mays ed. 11/12:341)]


The same position is taken by Ibn Hajar in Fath al-Bari in
commenting upon the same hadith in Bukhari

"In this hadith is evidence that each one of the two muhtahids that differ in a matter of the branches, is correct
." (wa fihi anna kulla mukhtalifayni fi al-furu` min al-muhtahidina musib.)


[Fath ul Bari (Kitab al-Maghazi, ch.31, 1989 ed. 7:520)]



Some ask about the discrepancy about which prayer was actually mentioned, since it is related in Bukhari as `Asr and in Muslim as Zuhr. Both reports are authentic and confirmed by other sound chains. Nawawi and Ibn Hajar said that the discrepancy is solved by the possibility that the travellers left in two groups, to each of whom was given a different order: the first group had not prayed Zuhr yet; while the second had prayed Zuhr, but not `Asr. Or it is solved by the possibility that one single group left together, containing those who had already prayed Zuhr and those who had not. The import of the hadith is to make haste and not dismount to pray nor anything else.

Jamal al-Din al-Qasimi

in his Risalat al-jarh wa al-ta`dil said:
 "It is required by justice that differences of opinion not be a pretext for disaffection. Enmity that stems from religious quarrels typifies the ignorant, not the knowledgeable; it typifies the people of folly, not the fair-minded."

Imam Ibn al-Hummam


author of many unique works in Jurisprudence and Doctrine records the view of the Hanafi scholars on Taqlid of a single Mujtahid in the commentary of Hidayah Fath al-Qadir:

(As for the layman) it is obligatory for him (Al-wajib alayh) to do Taqlid of a single Mujtahid
….The jurists have stated that the one who switches from one Madhab to another by his Ijtihad and evidence is sinful deserving of being punished. Thus one who does so without Ijtihad and evidence is even more deserving.


(vol.6 p.360)


Imam Nawawi


writes in Al-Majmu` Sharh Al-Muhadhdhab:


The second view is it is obligatory (yalzimuhu) for him to follow one particular school, and that was the definitive position according to Imam Abul-Hassan (the father of Imam al-Haramayn Al-Juwayni). And this applies to everyone who has not reached the rank of Ijtihad of the jurists and scholars of other disciplines. The reasoning for this ruling is that if it was permitted to follow any school one wished it would lead to hand-picking the dispensations of the schools, following one’s desires. He would be choosing between Halal and Haram, and obligatory and permissible. Ultimately that would lead to relinquishing oneself from the burden of responsibility. This is not the same as during the first generations, for the schools that were sufficient in terms of their rulings for newer issues, were neither codified or did they became popular. Thus on this basis it is obligatory for a person to strive in choosing a Madhab which alone he follows.


(Vol.1 p.93)


Imam Sharani [rah] 


an undisputed authority in the Shafi school writes in Al-Mizan al-Kubra:

…You (O student) have no excuse left for not doing Taqlid of any Madhab you wish from the schools of the four Imams, for they are all paths to Heaven….


(p.55 vol.1)

Shaikh Salih al-Sunusi 


writes

As for the scholar who has not reached the level of Ijtihad and the non-scholar, they must do Taqlid of the Mujtahid….And the most correct view is that it is obligatory (wajib) to adhere to a particular school from the four schools…


[COLOR="rgb(139, 0, 0)"] ( in Fath al-`Alee al-Malik fil-Fatwa `ala Madhab al-Imam Malik:Section on Usul al-Fiqh p.40-41)[/COLOR]

Imam Ibn Hajr al-Haytami [rah] 


Shaikh al-Islam Ahmad Ibn Hajr al-Haytami writes:

The claim the layman has no Madhab is proscribed, rather it is necessary (yalzamuhu) for him to do Taqlid of a recognised school. (As for the claim: scholars did not obligate following one school), that was before the codification of the schools and their establishment.

(In Tuhfa al-Muhtaj fi Sharh al-Minhaj,Vol.12 p.491-Kitab al-Zakah)


Imam Ahmad al-Wanshirisi [rah]


records the Fatwa on Taqlid:

It is not permitted (laa yajoozu) for the follower of a scholar to choose the most pleasing to him of the schools and one that agrees the most with him. It is his duty to do Taqlid of the Imam whose school he believes to be right in comparison to the other schools
.

(In the famous 12 volume Maliki compendium of Fataawa, Al-Mi`yar al-Mu`rib an Fataawa ahl al-Ifriqiyya wa al-Andalus wa al-Maghribvol.11 p.163-164)


Imam Aamidi




The layman and anyone who is not capable of Ijtihad, even if he has acquired mastery of some of the disciplines (Ulum) related to Ijtihad, is obligated (yalzimuh) with following the positions of the Mujtahid Imams and taking his juristic opinions and this is the view of the experts from the scholars of the principles (Al-Muhaqqiqin minnal-Usulyyin). It was the Mutazila of Baghdad who prohibited that except if the soundness of his Ijtihad becomes clear to him.

[COLOR="rgb(139, 0, 0)"]
( in Usul Imam Aamidi writes in Al-Ihkam fi Usul al-Ahkam:vol.4 p.278)[/COLOR]


Imam Zahid al-Kawthari


Hanafi jurist and senior juridical advisor to the last Shaikh al-Islam of the Ottoman Empire, wrote in a impassioned article against the growing modern trend of non-Madhabism, entitled Al-Laa Madhabiyya Qantara al-Laa Deeniyya (“Non-Madhabism is a bridge to Non-religion”):

Those who call the masses to throwing away adhering to a madhab from the Madhabs of the followed Imams, whose lives we briefly mentioned in what has passed, will be of two groups; those who consider that all the derived opinions of the Mujtahid are right, such that it is permitted for the layman to follow any opinion of any Mujtahid, not restricting himself to the opinions of a single Mujtahid whom he selects to be followed, such thinking belongs to the Mutazila. The (second group) are the Sufis who consider the Mujtahids to be all right in the sense that they seek out the hardest opinions from their positions without confining themselves to following one Mujtahid.


(entitled Al-Laa Madhabiyya Qantara al-Laa Deeniyya Published in Maqalaat al-Kawthari, p.224-225)


Imam Al-Jalaal Shams al-Din al-Muhalli 


writes 

And the soundest position (wal-Asahh) is that it is obligatory (yajibu) for the non-scholar/layman and other than him of those who have not reached the rank of Ijtihad, adherence of one particular school from the Madhabs of the Mujtahid Imams (iltizam Madhab Muayyan min madaahib al-Mujtahideen) that he beliefs to be preferable to another school or equal to it.


(in the commentary of the Shafi text Jam` al-Jawami,`:Kitab al-Ijtihad, p.93)

Deoband Sect founder Rashid Ahmad Gangohi,writes


When the corruption that comes from non-specific Taqlid is obvious, and no one will deny this provided he is fair, then when specific Taqlid is termed obligatory for other than itself (Wajib li-ghayrihi), and non-specific Taqld is termed unlawful, this will not be by mere opinion, rather it is by the command of the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him), for he commanded that removing corruption is an obligation upon every individual
.

( in Fataawa Rashidyya.205)


Imam Abd al-Hay al-Lakhnawi


writes in his Majmuat al-Fataawa, after mentioning the various views of the scholars on Taqlid:

On this subject the soundest view is that the laypeople will be prevented from such (choosing) of different opinions, especially the people of this time, for whom there is no cure but the following of a particular Madhab. If these people were allowed to choose between their Madhab and another, it would give rise to great tribulations. 


(Majmuat al-Fataawa, vol.3 p.195)

Imam Rajab al-Hanbali 


writes in his book: “Refutation of anyone who follows other than the four schools”:

…that is the Mujtahid, assuming his existence, his duty (Farduhu) is to follow what becomes apparent to him of the Truth. As for the non-Mujtahid his duty is Taqlid
 (p.6)

In the well known Maliki text Maraqi al-Saud, it is stated:

(Taqlid) is necessary (yalzimu) for other than the one who has achieved the rank of absolute ijtihad. Even if he is limited (mujtahid) who is unable (to perform absolute Ijtihad).
 (Point 957, p.39) 

He writes further on: “Every school from the schools of the (four) Mujtahids is a means that reaches one to Paradise.”

Imam Qurtubi (rah) in his Tafsir 

In one of the most authoritative juristic commentaries of the Holy Qur’an,, by the scholar Imam Qurtubi, he writes:

The scholars did not disagree that it is obligatory for the non-scholars (al-`Aamah) to do Taqlid of their scholars and they are meant in the verse: Ask the people of Remembrance if you do not know. And the scholars by consensus (Ajma`oo) stated it is necessary (laa budda) for he who is unable to see to do Taqlid of someone else who will tell him of the direction of the Qiblah, if it becomes difficult for him. Similarly, one who does no possess knowledge or insight of what the Deen teaches, then it is necessary (laa budda) for him to do Taqlid of that scholar who does.

(commenting on verse 7 in Sura Anbiya, in Al-Jami` li-ahkam al-Qar’an p.181 vol.11)





Answering the Wahabi/Salafi Objection and misquotation of four Salaf Imams [rah]

Usually the Salafis [ghair muqalids] misquote following words of Imam Abu Hanifa [rah], Malik [rah], Shafi [rah] and Hanbal [rah] to potray as if they were against laymen doing taqlid of them in fiqhi issues 

Quote:
Abu Haneefah (rahimahullaah)


3. "When I say something contradicting the Book of Allaah the Exalted or what is narrated from the Messenger (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam), then ignore my saying."[27]

Maalik ibn Anas (rahimahullaah)

As for Imaam Maalik ibn Anas, he said:

1. "Truly I am only a mortal: I make mistakes (sometimes) and I am correct (sometimes). Therefore, look into my opinions: all that agrees with the Book and the Sunnah, accept it; and all that does not agree with the Book and the Sunnah, ignore it."


Shaafi'i (rahimahullaah)



1. "The sunnahs of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) reach, as well as escape from, every one of us. So whenever I voice my opinion, or formulate a principle, where something contrary to my view exists on the authority of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam), then the correct view is what the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) has said, and it is my view."

2. "The Muslims are unanimously agreed that if a sunnah of the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) is made clear to someone, it is not permitted for him to leave it for the saying of anyone else."

Ahmad ibn Hanbal (rahimahullaah)


1. "Do not follow my opinion; neither follow the opinion of Maalik, nor Shaafi'i, nor Awzaa'i, nor Thawri, but take from where they took."[44]

In one narration: "Do not copy your Deen from anyone of these, but whatever comes from the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) and his Companions, take it; next are their Successors, where a man has a choice."

2. "The opinion of Awzaa'i, the opinion of Maalik, the opinion of Abu Haneefah: all of it is opinion, and it is all equal in my eyes. However, the proof is in the narrations (from the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) and his Companions)."

Our Reply 


The Salafi /wahabis have extremely misquoted such statements. In Reality

► These words are for mujtahids [only] who can make Ijhtehaad based on their knowledge.People who have learned and are experts in Quran, Arabic, Fiqh, Shariah laws, Hadiths and its sciences, Islamic history can practise such things. Laymen are still not discussed here.

► Blind Taqlid in Aqeeda like salafis/wahabis do in anthropomorphism of Ibn Taymiyyah and claim to do of Imam Ahmed bin Hanbal [rah] by quoting a forged book having more than 60% of Daeef [weak] hadiths in it is prohibited as well. Ahlus sunnah [sunni muslims] only do Taqlid in Fiqh issues not aqeeda. 


Some people say that the Mujtahid Imams have themselves said that their saying should not be followed until the evidence is known. "If our opinion is against Hadith, throw it off and follow the Hadith."

However, honestly, these words are direct to those who are capable of making an independent judgment, not those who cannot make Ijtihad.

Shah Waliullah Muhadith Dehalvi (rah) said about such sayings:


انمايتم فيمن له ضرب من الاجتهاد ولو فى مسئله واحدة وفيمن ظهر عليه ظهورا بينا ان النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم امر بكزا ونهى عن كزا وانه ليس بمنسوخ اما بان يتبع الاحاديث واقوال المخالف والموافق فى المسئلة اوبان يرى جما غفيرا من المتبحرين فى العلم يزهبون اليه ويرى المخالف له لايحتج الا بقياس اواستنباط اونحو زلك فحينئز لا سبب لمخالفة حديث النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم الا نفاق خفى او حمق جلى
-
TranslationThese words apply to him who has ability to make Ijtihad of some kind and he knows that which the Prophet (peace be upon him) allowed and what he disallowed, and also that this saying is not abrogated. Either he has examined all ahadith and words of both who disagree and who agree and concluded that there is no evidence of its abrogation or he has observed a large number of learned Ulama (Scholars) conducting themselves on it. And he is assured that the Imam who disagrees with the Hadith, has no evidence except verdicts and deductions. In such cases, disagreement with the Prophet's (peace be upon him) Hadith is either because of concealed hypocrisy or open foolishness. nothing else

[Hujat ul Baligah Volume 001, Page No. 264]


This is very obvious. The Imams were asked, all through their lives, and they gave answers without giving reasons. If this was not allowed, in their sight then they would not have done that. Besides, we have many of their sayings whereby they held Taqleed necessary for the one who is not a Mujtahid. For example:

Its is stated in Kifayah Sharah Hidayah:

وازا كان المفتى على هزه الصفة فعلى العامى تقليده، وان كان المفتى احطأ فى زلك، ولا معتبر بغيره، هكزا روى الحسن عن ابى حنيفة وابن رستم عن محمد وبشير بن الوليد عن ابى يوسف
-
TranslationAnd if the Mufti has this quality (that is, Mujtahid) then the layman must follow him even if the Mufti might err. No one else is reliable. This saying is reported by Imam Hasan (rah) from Imam Abu Hanifah (rah), Ibn Rustam (rah) from Imam Muhammad (rah) and Bashir Ibn al-Walid (rah) from Imam Abu Yusuf (rah). [Kifayah Sharah Hidayah, Kitab Al-Sawm]

Imam Abu Yusuf (rah) said (Hidayah Volume 001, Page No. 226): على العامى الاقتداء بالفقهاء لعدم الاقتداء فى حقه الى معرفة الاحاديث
-
Ibn Taymmiyah 


Ibn Taymmiyah wrote about Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal (rah):

ويأمرالعامى بان يستفتى اسحق وابا عبيد واباثور وابا مصعب وينهى العلماء من اصحابه كابى داؤد وعثمان بن سعيد وابراهيم الحربى وابى بكر الاثرم وابى زرعة وابى حاتم السجستانى ومسلم وغير هولاء ان يقلد وا احدا من العلماء ويقول عليكم بالاصل بالكتاب والسنة
-
TranslationImam Ahmad instructed the common people to learn the rulings from Imam Ishaq (rah), Abu Ubaid, Abu Thawr and Abu Musayb (rah). And, he disallowed those of his companions who were Scholars from making Taqleed of anyone. They were Abu Dawud, Uthman Ibn Sa'eed, Ibrahim al-Harabi, Abu Bakr al-Atharam, Abu Zar'ah, Abu Hatim Sajistani and Imam Muslims (rah), And he instructed them that it was Wajib for them to turn to the book and Sunnah. 

[Fatawa Ibn Taymmiyah, Volume 002, Page No.240]



It is very clear from this text of Ibn Taymmiyah that the Mujtahids who disallowed Taqleed had actually disallowed those of their students who were by themselves great scholars of Hadith and expert jurists and were fully qualified to make Ijtihad. As for those who were not Mujtahid, not only did they not disallow them but instructed them to follow the Mujtahids named. In fact, only the Mu'tazallah (معتزلة) opposed Taqleed even by those who were not Mujtahids.

Allama Saifuddin Aamdi (rah) said:


العامى ومن ليس له اهلية الاجتهاد وان كان محصلا لبعض العوم المعتبرة فى الاجتهاد يلزمه اتباع قول المجتهدين والاخز بفتواه عندالمحققين من الاصوليين ومنع من زلك بعض معتزلة البغداديين -

TranslationIt is Wajib for the common people and those who have studied some reliable sciences on Ijtihad but have not qualified to make Ijtihad to follow the sayings of the Mujtahids and act on their rulings.... But someMu'tazallah (معتزلة) of Baghdad disallowed.

[Ahkam ul-Ahkam Volume 004, Page No. 195; al-Mustasfah, Imam Ghazali Volume 002, Page No. 124]

Allama Khateeb Baghdadi (rah)


After stating that the non-Mujtahid masses are bound to make Taqleed, Allama Khateeb Baghdadi (rah) writes:

وحكمى عن بعض المعتزلة انه قال لا يجوز للعامى العمل بقول العالم حتى يعرف علة الحكم..... وهزا غلط لانه لا سبيل للعامى الى الوقوف على زلك الا بعد ان يتفقه سنين كثيرة ويخالط الفقهاء المدة الطويلة ويتحقق طرق القياس ويعلم ما يصححه ويفسده وما يجب تقديمه على غيره من الادلة وفى تكليف العامة بزلك تكليف مالا يطيقونه ولا سبيل لهم اليه


TranslationIt is ascribed to some Mu'tazallah (معتزلة) that even a layman cannot observe the sayings of a scholar until he knows the reasoning behind the instructions.... But this idea is very wrong. For, the layman has no way to know the reasoning unless he acquires knowledge of fiqh for years together, keeps company of the jurists for long times, studies the methods of Qiyas.. all people cannot undertake this task

[al-Fiqhiyah al-Mutafiqa - Khateeb Baghdadi Volume 002, Page No. 134-5]

The area where the Mujtahids differ is whether one who is qualified to make Ijtihad may make Taqleed Khateeb Baghdadi (rah) has cited Sufyan al-Thawri (rah) that even such a man may make Taqleed, while Imam Ahmad (rah) has said that he may make Taqleed of one more learned than him.

(Ibid Volume 002, Page No. 134-5).

Ibn Taymmiyah has cited Imam Muhammad (rah) that a Mujtahid is allowed to make Taqleed while Imam Shafi'I (rah) and Imam Ahmad (rah) say that he is not allowed at all. 

[Fatawa Ibn Taymmiyah Volume 002, Page No. 240]

Imam Abu Hanifah (rah) cited by allama Abdul hayi lakhnawi 


Allama Abdul Hayi Lakhnawi (rah) has cited Imam Abu Hanifah (rah) in the account of Imam Halwani (rah):

وقد روى عن الامام الاعظم جواز التقليد المجتهد بمن هو اعلم منه
-
Translation: For a Mujtahid, Taqleed of a scholar greater than him is allowed

[Taaliqat al-Sunniyah Page No. 96]



Was Abdullah Ibn Masud (RA) against Taqleed? Reply to Wahabi/salafis argument

Abdullah Ibn Masud (RA) saying is also cited often against Taqleed: "Let no one follow another in his religion in such a way that if he believes, he too believes, and if he disbelieves, he too disbelieves"

Obviously, no one permits Taqleed of this kind. His words are very clear that he does not tolerate Taqleed in Beliefs, and we have also repeated that often. But, as for Taqleed of the predecessors to learn injunctions of religion, Abdullah Ibn Masud (RA) has said:

من كان مستنا فليستن بمن قد مات، فان الحى لا تومن عليه الفتنة اولئك اصحاب محمد صلى عليه وسلم كانوا افضل هزا الامة... فاعر فوالهم فضلهم واتبعوهم على اثرهم تمسكوا بما استطعتم من اخلاقهم وسيرهم فانهم كانوا على الهدى المستقيم
-
TranslationIf anyone has to follow anyone, let him follow those who are dead, because we are not confident of the living that they will never succumb to mischief. They (worthy of being followed) are the Sahabah who are the most excellent people of this Ummah.... So, you must recognize their esteem and follow their Aathar and adopt their Manners and Habits as much as you can, because were on the right Path

[Mishqat al Masabih Volume 001, Page No. 68-9, Hadith Number 193]

The books on principle of fiqh generally treat the subject exhaustively, Through the Mujtahid Imams differed on whether a Mujtahid may make Taqleed, Yet, except for some Mu'tazallah (معتزلة), they all agree that one who is not a Mujtahid must necessary make Taqleed.
__________________



Question: Why do Taqleed Shakhsi?


In light of the evidence above, it has been established that absolute taqleed and taqleed of an individual i.e. taqleed shakhsi, both are proven from the Qur’an, Hadith, Sahabah (ra) and Tabi’een (rh).


We are prone to fall prey to our nafs – our desires. Islam is the submission to Allah (swt) by following and adhering to his laws. Without taqleed we can easily end up submitting to our nafs and not to Allah (swt).


A simple example


Now let’s take a practical example to see the dangers one faces if he or she does not make taqleed:

A person in wudhu starts to bleed. His wudhu becomes invalid according to the Hanafi Madhhab but according the Shafi’i it does not. In this case the person thinks “oh well according to the Shafi’i it does not become invalid so I can offer Salah.” Later on in the same day he touches a woman and now according to the Shafi’i his wudhu has become void but according to Hanafi it has not. Now he thinks “oh Hanafis say it’s not broken so my wudhu is intact.”


Here it can be seen how this person followed his nafs and not Allah (swt). For such reasons scholars have agreed that this methodology is haram.


Another example
 is as follows:

A person visits another town and thus becomes a traveler. He visits it for 5 days. Now according to the Shafi’i view he is not a traveler if he wishes to stay for 4 days or more. According to the Hanafi view he is a traveler till 14 days. So he uses the Hanafi view and declares himself a traveler and then uses the Shafi’i opinion and combines prayers.

Again in this example it is clear that this person has fallen prey to his nafs and is not submitting to Allah (swt).

Other small examples of difference of opinion are

Imam Shafi’i (rahmatullahaleh) allows playing chess.

Abdullah ibn Ja’far (rahmatullahaleh) allowed singing and flute. (Ithaf ab-Sadatul Mutqeen)

Imam Ghazali (rahmatullahaleh) allowed simple music in love of Allah and in naats [Ihya uloom ]

Qasim Ibn Muhammad (rahmatullahaleh) allowed pictures without shadows. (Nawawi in Sharh Muslim)

A’mash (rahmatullahaleh) held that fasting commenced from sunrise, not dawn. (Ruh al-Ma’ani under 2:187)

The issue of Rafulyadain is widely debated among classical scholars.

Ata ibn Abu Ribah (rahmatullahaleh) held that if Eid fell on Friday then both the salah of Friday and Dhuhr are waived and there is no salah till Asr. (Tahzeeb al-Asma wal-Lughat)

Ibn Sahnun (rahmatullahaleh) and others are said to have allowed anal intercourse.Where as majority of Ahlus sunnah scholars declared it haram. (Talkhees ul-Jeer by Ibn Hajar)


So if everyone is permitted to do as he likes and choose a ruling that suits him then he would collect such sayings and prepare a religion which suits his own desires [nafs] .

Knowing the dangers of such, scholars have written against such behavior declaring it as unlawful. One such opinion is quoted by a person who is accepted by the ghair muqallideen.


Wahabi Najdi Sheikh ul Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (rh), in Fatawa al-Kubra has written:


“The people follow the imam who holds marriage (in a particular case) as void and later they follow an imam who holds it to be valid. This is because of following of one’s own desires. Doing this is unanimously unlawful in the eyes of the Ummah.”

Further on he writes:


“And if someone says he was not aware of the ruling of another Madhhab and now that he has become aware of it he adheres to it, even then his word is not acceptable because this is making the deen a toy.”

Thus it is important to do taqleed and adhere to that school of thought rather than jumping from one ruling to another. We cannot go fatwa shopping based on our desires.


Shah Waliullah in al-Insaaf writes:



“It was during the second century of Islam that following a particular Madhhab became common and there was scarcely any who did not do so. This was wajib.”

For the same benefits today we need to do taqleed shakhsi.


Imam Nawawi (rh) writes in al-Majmoo’ Sharah al-Muhazzib:



“The reason taqleed of an individual has been made binding is that if man was allowed to follow whichever school of thought he liked then he would seek ease in every school of thought and act according to his base desires. People will get authority over the lawful and unlawful, the permitted and forbidden. The restrictions of Shari’ah will be removed finally. In earlier days, the schools of thought were not arranged completely and well-known. (Now that they are compiled and known) it is essential for everyone to select one of them and follow it specifically.”


In Fatawa Rahimiyyah, Shaami (rahmatullahaleh) is quoted
 as reporting the following incident:

“A faqih wished to marry the daughter of a certain Muhaddith. The Muhaddith however stipulated that he would allow the marriage only if the faqih conformed to the practices of ‘Raf’ul Yadain’ and ‘Aameen bil Jahar’. The faqih accepted and the couple was married. When the incident was mentioned to a saint of the time, he lowered his head and after a while said, “I fear for his Imaan because he compromised what he was doing as a Sunnah for worldly gain.”


An Issue of Fiqh


To prevent the ummah from falling into misguidance the ‘ulema time and again recommend that which is good and tell people to abstain from that which could bring about potential damage. A related example is quoted below.

What Scholars have stated regarding Taqleed Shakhsi


· Imam Abdul Ghani an-Nablusi [rahmatuallah aleh]
 in Khulasat-ut-Tahqiq: “A Muslim is either a Mujtahid or has not reached the level of Ijtihad. The one who is not a mujtahid should follow which ever he likes of the four Madhhaib.”

Imam Abdul Wahhab ash-Sah’rani [rahmatuallah aleh]
 in al-Mizan al-Kubra: “However according to the ‘ulema it is wajib for the ordinary Muslim to follow a mujtahid. They said that if a non-mujtahid Muslim did not follow a mujtahid, he would deviate from the right path. All mujtahids inferred rules from the documentary evidences they found in Islam….A person who speaks ill of any of the A’immat al-Madhhaib shows his ignorance.”

Allamah ibn Nujaim [rahmatuallah aleh] 
in al ‘shabalu Nasir: “For any person to go against the rule/decision of the four Imams is going against ijma.”

Ibn Humam[rahmatuallah aleh] in al-Tarirr fi Usul Fiqh:


“It is because of this, that certain….have stated that taqleed of the 4 imams is specified…and taqleed to be limited to these 4 imams is correct.” Further Ibn Humam in Fath al Qadeer: “The ijma was that any school apart from the four will not be taken”



Jiwan Siddique [rahmatuallah aleh] in Tafsir Ahmadi


“Ijma has occurred on that it is only permissible to make taqleed of the 4 imams. Thus, if any mujtahid is born and his opinions are against that of the 4 imams then it will not be permissible to follow it.”

Qadhi Thanaullah Panipati [rahmatuallah aleh] in Tafsir Mazhari:
 

“After the third and fourth century there is not a fifth Madhhab to follow besides the 4 madhhaib of the ahl-e-sunnah wal jamaah….and in this matter ijma has occurred that any opinions contrary to the 4 madhhaib is false (Baatil).”


Imam Sarsksi Maaliki [rahmatuallah aleh] in al-Fatuhatul Wahabia:
 

“In this age after the era of the Sahabah just as Ibn Salah has said that its not permissible to make taqleed of anyone besides the 4 imams, viz., Imam Malik, Imam Abu Hanifa, Imam Shafi’i, Imam Ahmed ibn Hanbal (rha).”


Ibn Hajar Makki in Farabul Mubeem fi Sahr Arba’een:


“In our time it is the opinion of the Elder Imams that it is permissible to make Taqleed of the Imam-e-Arbaa, viz., Imam Shafi’i, Imam Malik, Imam Abu Hanifa and Imam Ahmed (rha) and it is not permissible to make Taqleed of another Imam.”


Tahawi [rahmatuallah aleh] in Tahtawi alaa Durre Mukhtar


“The one who does not follow those four schools is from ahl al-Bid’aa and people of hell.”



· Abdullah, the son of Abdul Wahhab Najdi 
(in al-Hadayatul Sunnah – op sit- ‘Propaganda of Mansoor Nomani against Muhammad ibn Wahab’: “In secondary matters we are of the Madhhab of Imam Ahmed bin Hanbal (ra) and whosoever adheres to any of the 4 Imams we do not object.”









Ikhtilaf - (differences) among the Madhhabs in Islam Differences of Opinion are a Mercy

Ikhtilaf - (differences) among the Madhhabs in Islam Differences of Opinion are a Mercy


Madhhab Differences in Islam
by GF Haddad ©

On the hadith:

“ ikhtilâfu ummatî rahmatun li-nnâs ”
"The difference of opinion among the
Companions of Muhammad is a mercy!"

Some highlights:
Differences in the rulings in the branches of the law, not in doctrine
Difference of Opinion in Religion is of three kinds 
 Imam Abu Hanifa's opinion
Also included: Ibn Taymiyya's opinion
Examples of The Great Imams' Occasional Practice of Positions Contrary to Their Ijtihad
Referring to blind following (taqlîd)
Commentary on `Umar's position
Madhhab Differences in Islam
Excerpted with permission from Shaykh Muhammad Hisham Kabbani's Repudiation of 'Salafi' Innovations Vol. II (ASFA)1. al-Hafiz al-Bayhaqi in his book al-Madkhal and al-Zarkashi in his Tadhkirah fi al-ahadith al-mushtaharah relate:
Imam al-Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr al-Siddiq said: "The differences among the Companions of Muhammad are a mercy for Allah's servants."
al-Hafiz al-`Iraqi the teacher of Ibn Hajar al-`Asqalani said:
This is a saying of al-Qasim ibn Muhammad who said: The difference of opinion among the Companions of Muhammad is a mercy.
2. Al-Hafiz Ibn al-Athir in the introduction to his Jami` al-usul fi ahadith al-rasul relates the above saying from Imam Malik according to al-Hafiz Ibn al-Mulaqqin in his Tuhfat al-muhtaj ila adillat al-Minhaj and Ibn al-Subki in his Tabaqat al-Shafi`iyya.
3. Bayhaqi and Zarkashi also said:
Qutada said: `Umar ibn `Abd al-`Aziz used to say: "I would dislike it if the Companions of Muhammad did not differ among them, because had they not differed there would be no leeway (for us)."
4. Bayhaqi also relates in al-Madkhal and Zarkashi in the Tadhkira:
Al-Layth ibn Sa`d said on the authority of Yahya ibn Sa`id: "The people of knowledge are the people of flexibility (tawsi`a). Those who give fatwas never cease to differ, and so this one permits something while that one forbids it, without one finding fault with the other when he knows of his position."
5. Al-Hafiz al-Sakhawi said in his Maqasid al-hasana p. 49 #39 after quoting the above:
I have read the following written in my shaykh's (al-Hafiz ibn Hajar) handwriting: "The hadith of Layth is a reference to a very famous hadith of the Prophet MHMD, cited by Ibn al-Hajib in the Mukhtasar in the section on qiyas (analogy), which says: "Difference of opinion in my Community is a mercy for people" (ikhtilafu ummati rahmatun li al-nas). There is a lot of questioning about its authenticity, and many of the imams of learning have claimed that it has no basis (la asla lahu). However, al-Khattabi mentions it in the context of a digression in Gharib al-hadith... and what he says concerning the tracing of the hadith is not free from imperfection, but he makes it known that it does have a basis in his opinion."
6. Al-`Iraqi mentions all of the above (1-5) in his Mughni `an haml al-asfar and adds:
What is meant by "the Community" in this saying is those competent for practicing legal reasoning (al-mujtahidun) in the branches of the law, wherein reasoning is permissible.
What `Iraqi meant by saying "the branches wherein reasoning is permissible" is that difference is not allowed in matters of doctrine, since there is agreement that there is only one truth in the essentials of belief and anyone, whether a mujtahid or otherwise, who takes a different view automatically renounces Islam as stated by Shawkani.(1)
Albani in his attack on the hadith "Difference of opinion in my Community is a mercy" ignores this distinction and even adduces the verse: "If it had been from other than Allah they would have found therein much discrepancy" (4:82) in order to prove that differences can never be a mercy in any case but are always a curse.(2) His point is directed entirely against those who are content to follow a madhhab. The only scholar he quotes in support of his position is Ibn Hazm al-Zahiri, whose mistake in this was denounced by Nawawi.
7. Ibn Hazm said in al-Ihkam fi usul al-ahkam (5:64):
The saying "Difference of opinion in my Community is a mercy" is the most perverse saying possible, because if difference were mercy, agreement would be anger, and it is impossible for a Muslim to say this, because there can only be either agreement, or difference, and there can only be either mercy, or anger.
Imam Nawawi refuted this view in his Commentary on Sahih Muslim:
If something (i.e. agreement) is a mercy it is not necessary for its opposite to be the opposite of mercy. No-one makes this binding, and no-one even says this except an ignoramus or one who affects ignorance. Allah the Exalted said: "And of His mercy He has made night for you so that you would rest in it," and He has named night a mercy: it does not necessarily ensue from this that the day is a punishment.
8. al-Khattabi said in Gharib al-hadith:
Difference of opinion in religion is of three kinds:
* In affirming the Creator and His Oneness:   to deny it is disbelief;
* In His attributes and will:  to deny them is innovation;
* In the different rulings of the branches of the law (ahkam al-furu`):
Allah has made them mercy and generosity for the scholars, and that is the meaning of the hadith: "Difference of opinion in my Community is a mercy."(3)
9. al-Hafiz al-Suyuti says in his short treatise Jazil al-mawahib fi ikhtilaf al-madhahib (The abundant grants concerning the differences among the schools):
The hadith "Difference of opinion in my Community is a mercy for people" has many benefits among which are the fact that the Prophet MHMD foretold of the differences that would arise after his time among the madhahib in the branches of the law, and this is one of his miracles because it is a foretelling of things unseen.
Another benefit is his approval of these differences and his confirmation of them because he characterizes them as a mercy.
Another benefit is that the legally responsible person can choose to follow whichever he likes among them.
[After citing the saying of `Umar ibn `Abd al-`Aziz already quoted (#3 above), Suyuti continues:] This indicates that what is meant is their differences in the rulings in the branches of the law. 
10. The muhaddith al-Samhudi relates al-Hafiz Ibn al-Salah's discussion of Imam Malik's saying concerning difference of opinion among the Companions: "Among them is the one that is wrong and the one that is right: therefore you must exercise ijtihad." Samhudi said:
Clearly, it refers to differences in legal rulings (ahkam). Ibn al-Salah said: "This is different from what Layth said concerning the flexibility allowed for the Community, since this applies exclusively to the mujtahid as he said: "you must exercise ijtihad," because the mujtahid's competence makes him legally responsible (mukallaf) to exercise ijtihad and there is no flexibility allowed for him over the matter of their difference. The flexibility applies exclusively to the unqualified follower (muqallid). The people meant in the saying: "Difference of opinion in my Community is a mercy for people" are those unqualified followers. As for the import of Malik's saying "Among the Companions is the one that is wrong and the one that is right," it is meant only as an answer to those who say that the mujtahid is able to follow the Companions. It is not meant for others."
11. Imam Abu Hanifa said in the shorter version of al-Fiqh al-Akbar:
Difference of opinion in the Community is a token of divine mercy.
12. Ibn Qudama al-Hanbali said in al-`Aqa'id:
The difference in opinion in the Community is a mercy, and their agreement is a proof.
13. Ibn Taymiyya in the Mukhtasar al-fatawa al-misriyya says:
al-a'imma ijtima`uhum hujjatun qati`atun wa ikhtilafuhum rahmatun wasi`a -- The consensus of the Imams [of fiqh] on a question is a definitive proof, and their divergence of opinion is a vast mercy... If one does not follow any of the four Imams [of fiqh]... then he is completely in error, for the truth is not found outside of these four in the whole shari`a.(4)
14. al-Shatibi in Kitab al-i`tisam said:
A large group of the Salaf deemed the differences of the Community in the branches of the Law to be one of the paths of Allah's mercy...
The exposition of the fact that the aforesaid difference is a mercy is what is narrated from al-Qasim ibn Muhammad (ibn Abi Bakr al-Siddiq)'s words: "Allah has made us gain through the differences among the Companions of Allah's Messenger in their practice." No one practices according to the practice of one of them except he (al-Qasim) considered it to be within the fold of correctness.
Dumra ibn Raja' narrated: `Umar ibn `Abd al-`Aziz and al-Qasim ibn Muhammad met and began to review the hadiths. `Umar then began to mention things which differed from what al-Qasim mentioned, and al-Qasim would give him trouble regarding it until the matter became clearer. `Umar said to him: "Don't do that! (i.e. don't question the difference.) I dislike stripping the favors (of Allah) from their differences."
Ibn Wahb also narrated from al-Qasim that he said: "I was pleased by the saying of `Umar ibn `Abd al-`Aziz: I would dislike it if the Companions of Muhammad did not differ among them, because if there were only one view then the people would be in difficulty. Verily the Companions are Imams which one uses for guidance (innahum a'immatun yuqtada bihim). If someone follows the saying of one of them, that is Sunna."
The meaning of this is that they (the Companions) have opened wide for people the door of scholarly striving (ijtihad) and of the permissibility of difference in striving. If they had not opened it, the mujtahids would be in a bind, because the extent of ijtihad and that of opinions do not generally agree: the people who exert striving would then, despite their obligation to follow what they are convinced of, be obliged to follow what differs with them, and this is a kind of unbearable legal obligation and one of the greatest binds.
Allah therefore gave the Community generous leeway in the existence of disagreement in the branches of the law among them. This is the door that He opened for the Community to enter into this mercy. How then could they possibly not be meant by "those on whom thy Lord has mercy" in the verses "Yet they cease not differing, save those on whom thy Lord has mercy" (11:118-119)?! Therefore, their difference in the branches of the Law are like their agreement in them (in the fact that both consist in mercy), and praise belongs to Allah.(5)
15. Ibn `Abd al-Barr said in Jami` bayan al-`ilm:
The ulama are in agreement that it is permissible, for whoever looks into the differing opinions of the Prophet's Companions, to follow the position of whomever he likes among them. The same holds for whoever looks into the positions of the Imams other than the Companions, as long as he does not know that he has erred by contradicting the text of the Qur'an or Sunna or the Consensus of the scholars, in which case he cannot follow the above position. However, if this contradiction is not clear to him in any of the three respects mentioned, then it is permissible for him to follow the saying in question even if he does not know whether it is right or wrong, for he is in the realm of the common people (al-`amma) for whom it is permissible to imitate the scholar upon asking him something, even without knowing the bases of the answer...
Al-`Uqayli mentioned that Muhammad ibn `Abd al-Rahman al-Sayrafi said: I asked Ahmad ibn Hanbal: "If the Companions of the Prophet differed regarding a certain question, is it permissible for us to check their positions to see who among them is right so that we may follow him?" He replied: "It is not permissible to check on the Prophet's Companions (la yajuz alnazar bayna ashabi rasulillah)." I said: "Then what is the procedure in this?" He replied: "You follow whichever of them you like."(6)
16. Abu Dawud narrates that Ibn Mas`ud had censured `Uthman for completing the prayer while travelling (i.e. rather than shortening it to two cycles instead of four), yet when he prayed behind `Uthman he performed four cycles and did not shorten it. When this was pointed out to him he said: "Dissent is an evil" (al-khilafu sharr). (That is: dissent in the lines of prayer, or in the unity of Muslims.) Abu Dawud mentioned al-Zuhri's explanation that `Uthman had prayed four rak`at at Mina instead of two because that year the beduins had come in great numbers and he wished to teach them that the prayer consisted in four cycles.(7)
17. Ibn Abi Zayd al-Qayrawani related in his Jami` fi al-sunan that Ibn Mas`ud said:
Whoever wishes to follow the Sunna, let him follow the Sunna of those that died (i.e. keep to the practice of the Companions). Those are the Prophet's Companions. They were the best of this Community, the purest of heart, the deepest in knowledge, and the scarcest in discourse. They were a people Allah chose for His Prophet's company and the establishement of His Religion. Therefore be aware of their superiority and follow them in their views, and hold fast to whatever you are able from their manners and their lives. Verily they were on a straight path.(8)
18. Ibn Qudama in al-Mughni relates the following examples of the great Imams' occasional practice of positions contrary to their ijtihad:
* Abu Hanifa, Muhammad al-Shaybani, and Abu Yusuf's position is that ablution is nullified by bleeding. Yet when Abu Yusuf saw that Harun al-Rashid stood for prayer after being cupped without performing ablution, based on Malik's fatwa for him -- since bleeding does not annull ablution in Malik's view -- he prayed behind al-Rashid, and did not repeat his prayer. That is: he considered the prayer valid, and that therefore the ablution is not nullified for one who follows Malik's fatwa.
* Another time Abu Yusuf performed ghusl and prayed Jum`a in congregation, then he was told that a dead mouse had been found in the tank of the bath water. He did not repeat the prayer but said: "We shall follow in the matter the opinion of our brothers from the Hijaz (i.e. school of Malik): If the quantity of water is more than two pitchers' worth, the water is still pure (if a dead mouse is found in it)."
* When Shafi`i prayed the dawn prayer with the Hanafis at the grave of Abu Hanifa in Baghdad, he did not make the supplication after rising from bowing in the second cycle of prayer as is required in his own school but not in the Hanafi.
* Imam Ahmad's opinion is similar to the Hanafis' concerning the necessity of ablution after cupping. Yet when he was asked: "Can one pray behind the Imam who stands up to lead prayer after being cupped without having renewed his ablution?" he replied: "How could I not pray behind Malik and Sa`id al-Musayyib?" and, in another narration: "Can I forbid you from praying behind So-and-so?" That is: behind the Imams who do not consider it necessary to renew ablution.(9)
* Imam Ahmad also declared that one must pronounce the basmala loud when leading the prayer in Madina -- although this is contrary to his general view in the matter -- due to the fact that the majority of the people of Madina follow the school of Malik, which requires it. Ibn Taymiyya mentions it in his Qa`ida fi tawahhud al-milla.(10)

COMMENTARY
Some mention the account of `Umar's position over the difference of opinion that took place between Ubayy ibn Ka`b and `Abd Allah ibn Mas`ud over the matter of praying in a single garment. Ibn `Abd al-Barr said in his book Jami` bayan al-`ilm:
`Umar ibn al-Khattab was angry about the disagreement between Ubayy ibn Ka`b and Ibn Mas`ud on the question of praying in a single cloth: Ubayy said that it was fine and good, while Ibn Mas`ud said that this was done only when clothes were scarce. `Umar said: "Two men disagreeing from among the Prophet's Companions who are those one looks at and takes from?!" -- and this supports the import of the hadith which they have declared weak whereby My Companions are like the stars; whoever among them you use for guidance, you will be rightly guided. `Umar continued: "Ubayy has told the truth, nor has Ibn Mas`ud fallen short of it: but don't let me hear anyone disagree about this matter after this point, or I will do such-and-such with them!"(11)
`Umar considered neither Ubayy nor Ibn Mas`ud to be wrong, as illustrated by `Umar's answer in the following hadith from the Book of Prayer in Sahih al-Bukhari:
Narrated Abu Hurayra: A man stood up and asked the Prophet about praying in a single garment. The Prophet said, "Has everyone of you two garments?" A man put a similar question to `Umar whereupon he replied: "When Allah makes you wealthier then you should act wealthier. Let a man gather up his clothes about himself. One can pray in a loinwrap and mantle, or a loinwrap and shirt, or in a loinwrap and long sleeves, or in trousers and a cloak, or in trousers and a shirt, or in trousers and long sleeves, or in legless breeches and long sleeves, or in shorts and a shirt." The narrator added: "And I think he said: "Or in shorts and a cloak."(12)
Ibn Hajar in Fath al-Bari relates that the second questioner in the above hadith, that is: the man who asked `Umar, was `Abd Allah ibn Mas`ud. He mentions the report in the Musannaf of `Abd al-Razzaq whereby Ibn Mas`ud approached `Umar due to his difference with Ubayy who permitted prayer in a single garment in the sense that it is not offensive (makruh), while Ibn Mas`ud held that this was the case only at the time there was scarcity in clothing, whereupon `Umar went up to the pulpit and said: "What is right is what Ubayy said, and Ibn Mas`ud certainly did not fall short" (al-qawlu ma qala ubayy wa lam ya'il ibnu mas`ud).(13)
Thus the decision of `Umar whereby he authorized praying in a single garment without blame is not a proof that "one was right and the other was wrong" as some superficial observers understand, rather it is a proof that `Umar exercised his own ijtihad and authority as the Greater Imam in settling the question. He ruled without dismissing any view. Furthermore, if Ibn Mas`ud held his position from the Prophet he cannot change it even after the ruling of the Greater Imam. This is true of every true mujtahid at any time: he is obligated to follow the result of his own ijtihad even if it should differ with that of every other mujtahid of the past and present, unless he becomes convinced that he was mistaken in his previous ijtihad.
According to all the scholars it is incumbent upon the leader of Muslims to be a mujtahid and it is his responsibility in such cases to settle the question for the sake of the people of his time, and that is the proper context of Imam Malik's injuction: "Exercise ijtihad." It is addressed to the mufti who must establish what is correct in clearcut fashion, not to the muqallid or follower who is only interested in "a way to follow" (= madhhab) without having to verify its proofs and inferences. The muqallid is not free to follow other than what he accepts as correct, nor is the ijtihad of the unqualified ever considered valid for others. However, another mufti may reach another conclusion and be followed, and is not bound by that of the first, nor are those who take their fatwa from him, and no-one finds fault with the other, as al-Layth ibn Sa`d stated. Those who condemn taqlid unconditionally are innovating in religion. As Ibn Qayyim said, there is a kind of taqlid that is even obligatory:
There is an obligatory (wajib) taqlid, a forbidden taqlid, and a permitted taqlid... The obligatory taqlid is the taqlid of those who know better than us, as when a person has not obtained knowledge of an evidence from the Qur'an or the Sunna concerning something. Such a taqlid has been reported from Imam al-Shafi`i in many places, where he would say: "I said this in taqlid of `Umar" or "I said that in taqlid of `Uthman" or "I said that in taqlid of `Ata'." As al-Shafi`i said concerning the Companions -- may Allah be well pleased with all of them: "Their opinion for us is better than our opinion to ourselves."(14)
A clear proof that the fatwa of the leader overrules but does not invalidate the opinion of the Companions even if it directly contradicts it, is the fact that when `Umar ibn al-Khattab proposed to have all the hadith collected and written down he consulted the Companions and they unanimously agreed to his proposal; later he disapproved of it and ordered that everyone who had written a collection burn it. Yet `Umar ibn `Abd al-`Aziz later ordered that hadith be collected and written.(15)
Those who think they are mujtahid but in reality are unqualified, when faced by the followers of madhahib, camouflage their deviation under the claim: "We must follow Qur'an and Sunna, not madhahib." When it is pointed out to them that to follow a madhhab is to follow Qur'an and Sunna through true ijtihad, they become upset: "How can the four madhhabs differ and be right at the same time? I have heard that only one may be right, and the others wrong." The answer is that one certainly follows only the ruling that he believes is right, but he cannot fanatically invalidate the following of other rulings by other madhahib, because they also are based on sound principles of ijtihad. At this they rebel and begin numbering the mistakes of the mujtahids: "Imam Shafi`i was right in this, but he was wrong in that; Imam Abu Hanifa was right in this, but he was wrong in that..." They do not even spare the Companions. But when they are rebuked for this blatant disrespect "They become arrogant in their sin" (2:206). And this is the legacy of the "Salafi" movement.
(1) al-Shawkani, Irshad al-Fuhul p. 259 as quoted in Mohammad Hashim Kamali, Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence p. 383.
(2) Albani, Silsila da`ifa 1:76 #57.
(3) al-Jarrahi cited it in Kashf al-khafa 1:64 #153.
(4) Ibn Taymiyya, Mukhtasar al-fatawa al-misriyya (Cairo, 1980) p. 35, 54.
(5) al-Shatibi, al-I`tisam 3:11; or (1995 Beirut ed.) p. 395.
(6) Ibn `Abd al-Barr, Jami` bayan al-`ilm (Cairo: dar al-tiba`a al-muniriyya) 2:78-83, 181.
(7) Abu Dawud, Manasik, Chapter on Prayer #1960.
(8) Ibn Abi Zayd, al-Jami` fi al-sunan (1982 ed.) p. 118-119.
(9) Ibn Qudama, Muqaddimat al-Mughni 1:22.
(10) Ibn Taymiyya, Qa`ida fi tawahhud al-milla p. 174.
(11) Ibn `Abd al-Barr, Jami` bayan al-`ilm 2:84.
(12) Cf. English version vol. 1, Bk. 8, #361.
(13) Ibn Hajar, Fath al-Bari (1989 ed.) 1:627.
(14) Ibn Qayyim, I`lam al-muwaqqi`in 2:186-187.
(15) al-Baghdadi relates it in his Taqyid al-`ilm 49, 52-53, 105-106, and Ibn Sa`d in his Tabaqat 3(1):206, 8:353.
Blessings and Peace on the Prophet, his Family, and his Companions
Naqshbandi-Haqqani Foundation of Ahl al-Sunna wa al-Jama`a
5 Dec 1996
GF Haddad











Hadith # 1 On following Ahlus sunnah wal jammat [majority group]

حَدَّثَنَا أَحْمَدُ بْنُ حَنْبَلٍ، وَمُحَمَّدُ بْنُ يَحْيَى، قَالاَ حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو الْمُغِيرَةِ، حَدَّثَنَا صَفْوَانُ، ح وَحَدَّثَنَا عَمْرُو بْنُ عُثْمَانَ، حَدَّثَنَا بَقِيَّةُ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنِي صَفْوَانُ، نَحْوَهُ قَالَ حَدَّثَنِي أَزْهَرُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ الْحَرَازِيُّ، عَنْ أَبِي عَامِرٍ الْهَوْزَنِيِّ، عَنْ مُعَاوِيَةَ بْنِ أَبِي سُفْيَانَ، أَنَّهُ قَامَ فِينَا فَقَالَ أَلاَ إِنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَامَ فِينَا فَقَالَ " أَلاَ إِنَّ مَنْ قَبْلَكُمْ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ افْتَرَقُوا عَلَى ثِنْتَيْنِ وَسَبْعِينَ مِلَّةً وَإِنَّ هَذِهِ الْمِلَّةَ سَتَفْتَرِقُ عَلَى ثَلاَثٍ وَسَبْعِينَ ثِنْتَانِ وَسَبْعُونَ فِي النَّارِ وَوَاحِدَةٌ فِي الْجَنَّةِ وَهِيَ الْجَمَاعَةُ " . زَادَ ابْنُ يَحْيَى وَعَمْرٌو فِي حَدِيثَيْهِمَا " وَإِنَّهُ سَيَخْرُجُ مِنْ أُمَّتِي أَقْوَامٌ تَجَارَى بِهِمْ تِلْكَ الأَهْوَاءُ كَمَا يَتَجَارَى الْكَلْبُ لِصَاحِبِهِ " . وَقَالَ عَمْرٌو " الْكَلْبُ بِصَاحِبِهِ لاَ يَبْقَى مِنْهُ عِرْقٌ وَلاَ مَفْصِلٌ إِلاَّ دَخَلَهُ " .

Abu ‘Amir al-Hawdhani said:
Mu’awiyah b. Abi Sufiyan stood among us and said: Beware! The Apostle of ALLA H (SAWS) stood among us and said: Beware! The people of the Book before were split up into seventy-two sects, and this community will be split into seventy three: seventy-two of them will go to Hell and one of them will go to Paradise,

and it is the MAJORITY GROUP
Ibn Yahya and ‘Amr added in their version : “ There will appear among my community people who will be dominated by desires like rabies which penetrates its patient”, ‘Amr’s version has: “penetrates its patient. There remains no vein and no joint but it penetrates it.”


(Grade : Sahih Hadith )

(Sunan Abu Dawood, Book 41, Hadith 4580 )

Another Hadith states

Transliteration : Alaykum bi al-jama`a fa innallaha la yajma`u ummata Muhammadin `ala dalala

Translation : "You have to follow the Congregation for verily Allah will not make the largest group of Muhammad's Community agree on error

[ Reference : Ibn Abi Shayba relates it with a sound chain as hadith # 354 ] 



Hadith # 2 On following Ahlus sunnah wal jammat [majority group]


Allah will never let my Ummah agree upon misguidance
, and the hand of Allah is over the group (Jama'ah), so follow the great mass of believers (Sawad ul-'Azam), and whoever dissents from them departs to hell

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[A narration "AUTHENTICATED" and reported by al-Hakim (1/116), and al-Dhahabi agreed with him][/COLOR]



Hadith # 3 : On following Ahlus sunnah wal jammat [majority group]


La yajma`ullahu ummati `ala dalala

"Verily Allah will not make my Community agree on error


[ Reference:Tirmidhi with a fair (hasan) chain ]

Hadith # 4


Inna Allaha la yajma`u ummati -- aw qala: ummata Muhammadin --`ala dalalatin wa yadullahi ma` al-jama`a

"Verily Allah will not make my Community -- or Muhammad's Community -- agree on error, and Allah's hand is with the largest Congregation.
"

[Reference :Tirmidhi (gharib) #2256, Cairo ed. `Aridat al-ahwadhi (11:9)]


Note here that above hadith is called Gharib but a Gharib hadith is not necessarily Daeef, even if we agree it is that Authentic hadith of Imam Hakim [rah] makes it Sahih as wordings are same. What wahabis mostly do is to show only one chain and claim all hadiths are Daeef which is misguiding ignorant people actually.



Hadith # 5: On following Ahlus sunnah wal jammat [majority group]


Man arada minkum bi habuhat al-jannati fal yulzim al-jama`at

"Whoever among you wants to be in the middle of Paradise, let him cling to the Congregation."

[Reference : Tirmidhi related it and said it is sound (sahih).] 



Hadith # 6: On following Ahlus sunnah wal jammat [majority group]


Inna al-shaytana dhaybun ka dhayb al-ghanam ya'khudh al-shat al-qasiya wal-najiya fa iyyakum wal-shu`aab wa `alaykum bil-jama`ati wal-`aammati wal-masjid

"Shaytan is a wolf like the wolf that preys on sheep, taking the isolated and the stray among them; therefore, avoid factionalism and keep to the Congregation and the collective and the masjid."


[Reference: Ahmad relates it through Mu`adh and through Abu Dharr, the two chains being respectively fair [hasan] and sound [sahih] according to Haythami in Majma` al-zawa'id 6/123]



Hadith # 7: On following Ahlus sunnah wal jammat [majority group]


Inna ummati la tajtami`u `ala dalalatin fa idha ra'aytum al-ikhtilaf fa `alaykum bi al-sawad al-a`zam.

"My Community shall never agree upon misguidance, therefore, if you see divergences, you must follow the greater mass or larger group


References 


► Ibn Majah (2:1303 #3950) from Anas with a weak chain.

► Imam Ahmad narrates it mawquf through three sound chains to Abu Umama al-Bahili and Ibn Abi Awfa. However, it is marfu` to the Prophet from Abu Umama by Ibn Abi Shayba in his Musannaf as well as Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, the latter two's narration stating that Abu Umama heard this from the Prophet up to seven times. Bayhaqi in al-Madkhal narrates something similar from Ibn `Abbas.

Above hadith came from multiple chains, one daeef [weak] and three other Sahih ones.


Hadith # 8 : On following Ahlus sunnah wal jammat [majority group]


Lan tajtami`a ummati `ala dalalatin fa `alaykum bi al-jama`ati fa inna yadullahi `ala al-jama`a.

"My Community shall not agree upon misguidance. Therefore, you must stay with the Congregation, and Allah's hand is over the Congregation.


[Reference:
 Tabarani narrated it with two chains from Ibn `Umar, one of which is sound (sahih). See Haythami, Majma` al-zawa'id, chapter on the obligation to stay with the Congregation.]


Hadith # 9 : On following Ahlus sunnah wal jammat [majority group]


Innallaha qad ajara ummati min an tajtami`a `ala dalala

"Verily Allah has protected my Community from agreeing upon error."


[Ibn Abi `Asim narrated it in the Sunna and Wahabi so called mujtahid Albani declared it hasan in his Silsila sahiha (3:319).]




Hadith # 11 : On following Ahlus sunnah wal jammat [majority group]


Sahih Bukhari Book 56 Hadith 803 

Narrated Hudhaifa bin Al-Yaman:
,
..... He said, "Yes, there will be some people who will invite others to the doors of Hell, and whoever accepts their invitation to it will be thrown in it (by them)." I said, "O Allah's Apostle! Describe those people to us." He said, "They will belong to us and speak our language (i.e Arabic) " I asked, "What do you order me to do if such a thing should take place in my life?"
,
He said, "Adhere to the CONGREGATION OF MUSLIMS and their Chief.
" I asked, "If there is neither a group (of Muslims) nor a chief (what shall I do)?" He said, "Keep away from all those different sects, even if you had to bite (i.e. eat) the root of a tree, till you meet Allah while you are still in that state."[END]

Now what does Jammah of muslims means in this hadith,

the most authentic classical Tafsir of Sahih bukhari which is Fath ul Bari my

Imam Ibn e Hajr Asqalni says 

" Jammah in this hadith means Sawad ul Azam (the majority group) " 

Reference:( Fath ul Bari, volume 29, pg 331 , By Imam Asqalani (rah))


So if Congregation of muslims [sawad us adham ] is not available one is advised to keep away from all smaller sects according to sahih bukhari


Hadith # 12 : On following Ahlus sunnah wal jammat [majority group]


Yadu Allah `ala al-jama`a

"Allah's hand is over the group."


[Sunan Tirmidhi , Hadith termed hasan]

al-Munawi said:
 "Allah's hand is over the group means His protection and preservation for them, signifying that the collectivity of the people of Islam are in Allah's fold, so be also in Allah's shelter, in the midst of them, and do not separate yourselves from them. Whoever diverges from the overwhelming majority concerning what is lawful and unlawful and on which the Community does not differ has slipped off the path of guidance and this will lead him to hell.

[al-Munawi, Sharh al-Jami` al-saghir 3:449]



Hadith # 13 : On following Ahlus sunnah wal jammat [majority group]


Yadu Allah `ala al-jama`at wa man shadhdha shadhdha ila al-nar.

"Allah's hand is over the group, and whoever dissents from them departs to hell

[Tirmidhi (gharib) from Ibn `Umar, al-Hakim both from Ibn `Umar and Ibn `Abbas, and Ibn Jarir from Ibn `Umar.]



Hadith # 14 : On following Ahlus sunnah wal jammat [majority group]


Yadu Allah `ala al-jama`a, ittabi`u al-sawad al-a`zam fa innahu man shadhdha shadhdha ila al-nar.

"Allah's hand is over the group, follow the largest mass, for verily whoever dissents from them departs to hell


[ Narrated by al-Hakim and al-Tabari from Ibn `Abbas, and al-Lalika'i in al-Sunna and al-Hakim also narrated it from Ibn `Umar.]



Hadith # 15: On following Ahlus sunnah wal jammat [majority group]


Man faraqa al-jama`ata shibran mata maytatan Jahiliyya.

"Whoever leaves the Community or separates himself from it by the length of a span, dies the death of the Jahiliyya (period of ignorance prior to Islam)"

[Sahih Muslim (Imara #55) through Ibn `Abbas. Muslim relates it with slight variations through three more chains. Ibn Abi Shayba also relates it in his Musannaf.]




Hadith # 16 : On following Ahlus sunnah wal jammat [majority group]


Abu Ghalib said that during the crisis with the Khawarij in Damascus he saw Abu Umama one day and he was crying. He asked him what made him cry and he replied: "They followed our religion," then he mentioned what was going to happen to them tomorrow. Abu Ghalib said: "Are you saying this according to your opinion or from something you heard the Prophet say?" Abu Umama said: "What I just told you I did not hear from the Prophet only once, or twice, or three times, but more than seven times. Did you not read this verse in Al `Imran: The day faces will be white and faces will be dark..."? (3:106) to the end of the verse. Then he said: I heard the Prophet say: "The Jews separated into 71 sects, 70 of which are in the fire; the Christians into 72 sects, 71 of which are in the fire; and this Community will separate into 73 sects, all of them are in the fire except one which will enter Paradise." We said: "Describe it for us." He said: "The Sawad al-a`zam [the majority group ] ."

[Reference : Haythami said in Majma` al-zawa'id: Tabarani narrated it in al-Mu`jam al-kabir and al-Awsat, and its all narrators are trustworthy (thiqat) This hadith is Sahih ]




Hadith # 17 


Sataftariqu ummati `ala thalathat wa sab`ina firqatin kulluhum fil nari ila millatin wahidat, qalu man hiya ya rasulallah, qala ma ana `alayhi wa as-habi

"My Community will split into seventy-three sects. All of them will be in the fire except one group. They asked: Who are they, O Messenger of Allah? He said: Those that follow my way and that of my companions."

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[ Sunan tirmidhi 18:2650, sunan Abu Dawud, and al-Darimi related it.]
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Hadith # 18


What is meaning of word Sawad us Azam according to Sahih hadiths itself



لَمَّا أُسْرِيَ بِالنَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ جَعَلَ يَمُرُّ بِالنَّبِيِّ وَالنَّبِيَّيْنِ وَمَعَهُمْ الْقَوْمُ وَالنَّبِيِّ وَالنَّبِيَّيْنِ وَمَعَهُمْ الرَّهْطُ وَالنَّبِيِّ وَالنَّبِيَّيْنِ وَلَيْسَ مَعَهُمْ أَحَدٌ حَتَّى مَرَّ بِسَوَادٍ عَظِيمٍ فَقُلْتُ مَنْ هَذَا قِيلَ مُوسَى وَقَوْمُهُ وَلَكَنِ ارْفَعْ رَأْسَكَ فَانْظُرْ قَالَ فَإِذَا سَوَادٌ عَظِيمٌ قَدْ سَدَّ الْأُفُقَ مِنْ ذَا الْجَانِبِ وَمِنْ ذَا الْجَانِبِ فَقِيلَ هَؤُلَاءِ أُمَّتُكَ وَسِوَى هَؤُلَاءِ مِنْ أُمَّتِكَ سَبْعُونَ أَلْفًا يَدْخُلُونَ الْجَنَّةَ بِغَيْرِ حِسَابٍ فَدَخَلَ وَلَمْ يَسْأَلُوهُ وَلَمْ يُفَسِّرْ لَهُمْ فَقَالُوا نَحْنُ هُمْ وَقَالَ قَائِلُونَ هُمْ أَبْنَاؤُنَا الَّذِينَ وُلِدُوا عَلَى الْفِطْرَةِ وَالْإِسْلَامِ فَخَرَجَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَقَالَ هُمْ الَّذِينَ لَا يَكْتَوُونَ وَلَا يَسْتَرْقُونَ وَلَا يَتَطَيَّرُونَ وَعَلَى رَبِّهِمْ يَتَوَكَّلُونَ فَقَامَ عُكَّاشَةُ بْنُ مِحْصَنٍ فَقَالَ أَنَا مِنْهُمْ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ قَالَ نَعَمْ ثُمَّ قَامَ آخَرُ فَقَالَ أَنَا مِنْهُمْ فَقَالَ سَبَقَكَ بِهَا عُكَّاشَةُ



Sayyidina Ibn Abbas (RA) narrated: When the Prophet (SAW) was taken to the (heavens for the) mi’raj, he passed by a Prophet and Prophets with whom were a group of people, a Propher and Prophets with whom was a raht, a Prophet and Prophets with whom was nobody till he passed by a great multitude (sawad us azam) . He asked. “Who is this?” He was told, “Musa and his people, but raise your head and see.” He said, “I saw a great multitude that had plugged the horizon from this side barricaded the horizon from that side.” He was told, “These are you ummah and apart from these there are seventy thousand of your ummah who will enter paradise without any accounting.” Then he came (home) and they did not ask him and he did not explain to them. They said (to one another), “We are among them.” And some said, “they are the children born on nature and on Islam.’ The Prophet came out and said, “They are those who do not have themselves cauterised or treated with incantation (charms) , or believe in omens, but on their Lord do they rely. Ukashah ibn Mihsan got up and said, “Am I one of them,O Messenger of , “Yes.” Then another came and asked, “Am I one of them?” He said, “Ukashah overtook you in that.”

[Sahih Bukhari 5752,Sahih Muslim 220, Ahmed 2448, sunan tirmidhi 17:2454]



Hadith # 19 



The Messenger (SalAllahu ‘alaihi wasallam) said;

إفترقت اليهود على احدى وسبعين فرقة،
وافترقت النصارة على إثنتين وسبعين فرقة،
وتفترق أمتي على ثلاث وسبعين فرقة


“The Jews were divided among themselves into seventy one or seventy two sects, and the Christians were divided among themselves into seventy one or seventy two sects. And My Ummah will be divided among itself into seventy three sects.”


Abu Dawud Book (Kitab Al-Sunnah) #40 ,Hadith # 4579 ,
, sunan al-Tirmidhi, al-Hakim and musnad Ahmad among several others, reported this Hadith. At-Tirmidhi said;
 “Hadeethun Hassanun Sahih”. ]



Hadith # 20 


In another variation, Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu `Amir `Abdullah bin Luhay said; "We performed Hajj with Mu`awiyah bin Abi Sufyan. When we arrived at Makkah, he stood up after praying Dhuhr and said; ‘The Messenger of Allah (SalAllahu alaihi wasallam) said;

إِنَّ أَهْلَ الْكِتَابَيْنِ افْتَرَقُوا فِي دِينِهِمْ عَلى ثِنْتَيْنِ وَسَبْعِينَ مِلَّةً، وَإِنَّ هذِهِ الْأُمَّةَ سَتَفْتَرِقُ عَلى ثَلَاثٍ وَسَبْعِينَ مِلَّةً يَعْنِي الْأَهْوَاءَ كُلُّهَا فِي النَّارِ إِلَّا وَاحِدَةً وَهِيَ الْجَمَاعَةُ وَإِنَّهُ سَيَخْرُجُ فِي أُمَّتِي أَقْوَامٌ تَجَارَى بِهِمْ تِلْكَ الْأَهْوَاءُ كَمَا يَتَجَارَى الْكَلَبُ بِصَاحِبِه، لَا يَبْقَى مِنْهُ عِرْقٌ وَلَا مَفْصِلٌ إِلَّا دَخَلَ
ه

‘The People of the Two Scriptures divided into seventy-two sects. This Ummah will divide into seventy-three sects, all in the Fire except one, that is, the Jama’ah. Some of my Ummah will be guided by desire, like one who is infected by rabies; no vein or joint will be saved from these desires.’’”


ثنتان وسبعون في النار. قيل: يا رسول الله
من هم؟ قال: الجماعة 

“Seventy two in hell fire and one in the Jannah: that is the 'Jama’ah.'” 


[ Abu Dawood (2/503), Ahmad (4/102) and al-Haakim (1/128)] among others, with similar wording but with the following addition ]

From above Hadiths following things can be seen 


► The hadith of sawad us azam [following majority] comes from several chains. From many Sahih chains and few weak , Please be careful because Wahabis [salafis] misquote and show only Daeef chains to misguide others where as if same words are present in Sahih chains or hasan ones than Daeef hadith itself is termed as Sahih.

► The term Congregation [jama'h] and Sawad us azam [ largest group] are used to define same group of muslims which will be on right path.

► The Largest group or congregation of muslims will follow Quran and sunnah and way of Sahabas [ra] as well. Like Ahlus sunnah does. 
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Now Who is ahlus sunnah today [majority group]



now who is in majority in India-Pakistan and around the world, In Pakistan Sunnis are 50%


In India they are more than 60-70%, also sunnis following similar aqeeda like GF haddad, Nuh ha meem keller, Sheikh nizim ud din haqqani , Pir Saif us rehman mubarak , Mufti Akhtar Raza khan , Shah turab ul Haq, Moulana Ilyas Qadri , Moulana Okarvi , Dr tahir ul qadri and many many other leading scholars from around the world under whom millions of sunnis learn Islam today from Naqshbandi, Chisti, Qadri, Shadli, Suharwardia silsilas and so many more have same aqeeda around the world and are ahlus sunnah [sunni muslims] 

In India-pakistan only Ahlus sunnah wal jammat [barelwi sunni movement ] is more than 50% check following link for proof 

http://www.globalsecurity.org/milita...am-barelvi.htm

Hanafis, shafis, malikis, hanbalis [all muqalids], and all sufi silsilas who have same Aqeeda [beliefs] live all around the world and follow ahlus sunnah, alhamduliallah


Now a Reply to confusion regarding Quranic verses with proper context



First of all we have to agree that there is [B]No CONTRADICTION IN QURAN AND SAHIH HADITHS.[/B] To understand Quran in correct perspective we to follow Sahih hadiths and Classical Authentic tafsirs of Al Quran. Once we put all of these together inshallah every thing will not only be cleared but also all confusions will be eliminated too

First I would like to Quote a Hadith about what Khawarijies do and how they are the worst creations of Mankind

Sahih Hadith states 


‏وكان ‏ ‏ابن عمر ‏ ‏يراهم شرار خلق الله ‏ ‏وقال إنهم انطلقوا إلى آيات نزلت في الكفار فجعلوها على المؤمنين

"Ibn Umar considered the Khawarij and the heretics as the worst beings in creation, and he said: They went to verses which were revealed about the disbelievers and applied them to the Believers.

Bukhari Chapter Khawarjites

Ibn Hajr al Asqalani (rah) said in Fath ul bARI: قلت : وسنده صحيح That its sanad is sahih

Source: http://hadith.al-islam.com/Display/D...oc=0&Rec=10321

Now any one who quotes verses of Quran revealed for kafirs and applies them on Muslims is a khawariji 

Now let us analyze all Quran verses revealed on Issue of sects inshallah 

Misquotation of Quranic Verse # 1 

"As for those who divide their religion and break up into sects, you have no part of them in the least. Their affair is with Allah; He will in the end tell them the truth of all that they did." 

AlQuran(6:159)

Tafsir al jalalayn says
[ * تفسير تفسير الجلالين/ المحلي و السيوطي (ت المحلي 864 هـ) مصنف و مدقق ]

{ ٱلْحَمْدُ للَّهِ } جملة خبرية قصد بها الثناء على الله بمضمونها من أنه تعالى مالك: لجميع الحمد من الخلق أو مستحق لأن يحمدوه و(الله) علم على المعبود بحق { رَبّ ٱلْعَٰلَمِينَ } أي مالك جميع الخلق من الإنس والجنّ والملائكة والدواب وغيرهم وكل منها يطلق عليه عالم، يقال: عالم الإنس وعالم الجنّ إلى غير ذلك. وغلب في جمعه بالياء والنون أولو العلم على غيرهم وهو من العلامة لأنه علامة على موجده.

Those who have sundered their religion, by being at variance over it, accepting some [aspects] of it and rejecting others, and have become differing parties, sects with regard to such [matters] (a variant reading [for farraqū, ‘they have sundered’] has fāraqū, meaning that they have abandoned the religion to which they were enjoined, and they are the Jews and the Christians), you have no concern with them at all, in other words, do not be concerned with them. Their case will go to God — He will take charge of it — then He will inform them, in the Hereafter, of what they used to do, and requite them for it: this was abrogated by the ‘sword’ verse [Q. 9:5].

Arabic source:
http://www.altafsir.com/Tafasir.asp?...0&LanguageId=1

Tafsir ibn khatir says


قال مجاهد وقتادة والضحاك والسدي: نزلت هذه الآية في اليهود والنصارى. وقال العوفي عن ابن عباس في قوله: { إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ فَرَّقُواْ دِينَهُمْ وَكَانُواْ شِيَعًا }: وذلك أن اليهود والنصارى اختلفوا قبل مبعث محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم فتفرقوا، فلما بعث محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم أنزل الله عليه


Mujahid, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak and As-Suddi said that this Ayah was revealed about the Jews and Christians. Al-`Awfi said that Ibn `Abbas commented,

﴿إِنَّ الَّذِينَ فَرَّقُواْ دِينَهُمْ وَكَانُواْ شِيَعًا﴾


(Verily, those who divide their religion and break up into sects...) "Before Muhammad was sent, the Jews and Christians disputed and divided into sects. When Muhammad was sent, Allah revealed to him,

Arabic source:
http://www.altafsir.com/Tafasir.asp?...0&LanguageId=1

So this verse is revealed for Kafirs who left Islam and divided into deviant sects

Misquotation of Quranic Verse # 2

"Surely, this brotherhood of yours is a single brotherhood, and I am your Lord and Cherisher. Therefore serve me and no other. But they broke their religion into sects among them; yet they will all return to Us." 

AlQuran(21:92-93)

Tafsir al-Jalalayn says 


{ إِنَّ هَٰذِهِ } أي ملة الإِسلام { أُمَّتُكُمْ } دينكم أيها المخاطبون: أي يجب أن تكونوا عليها { أُمَّةً وَاحِدَةً } حال لازمة { وَأَنَاْ رَبُّكُمْ فَٱعْبُدُونِ } وحِّدونِ.



But they, that is to say, some of those being addressed, fragmented their affair among themselves, that is, they became divided in the matter of their religion, and at variance over it — these are the [different] sects of the Jews and the Christians. God, exalted be He, says: All shall return to Us, and We will requite each according to his deeds.
[* تفسير تفسير الجلالين/ المحلي و السيوطي (ت المحلي 864 هـ) مصنف و مدقق]

Arabic source
http://www.altafsir.com/Tafasir.asp?...0&LanguageId=1


So this verse is revealed for Kafirs 
who left Islam and divided into deviant sects as well.


Misquotation of Quranic Verse # 3 

"And surely this brotherhood of your is a single brotherhood, and I am your Lord and Cherisher. Therefore fear Me and no other. But people have broken their religion into sects, each group rejoicing in that which is with them. But leave them in their confused ignorance for a time." 

AlQuran(23:52-54)

Tafsir al jalayn says

{ فَتَقَطَّعُواْ } أي الأتباع { أَمَرَهُمْ } دينهم { بَيْنَهُمْ زُبُراً } حال من فاعل «تقطعوا» أي أحزاباً متخالفين كاليهود والنصارى وغيرهم { كُلُّ حِزْبٍ بِمَا لَدَيْهِمْ } أي عندهم من الدين { فَرِحُونَ } مسرورون.


But they, the followers, split into sects regarding their affair, their religion (zuburan, ‘sects’, is a circumstantial qualifier of the subject of the verb taqatta‘ū, ‘they split’), in other words, [they became] opposing parties, the likes of the Jews and the Christians and others, each party rejoicing in, exultant with, what they had, that is, with the religion they had.
[* تفسير تفسير الجلالين/ المحلي و السيوطي (ت المحلي 864 هـ) مصنف و مدقق ]

arabic source
http://www.altafsir.com/Tafasir.asp?...0&LanguageId=1

This is for disbelievers too, nothing for muslim in the verse


Misquotation of Quranic verse # 4

"Turn back in repentance to Him, and fear Him. Establish regular prayers, and be not among those who ascribe partners to God -- those who split up their religion, and become mere sects, each party rejoicing in that which is with itself!
"
AlQuran(30:31-32)

Tafsir al jalalayn says



{ مُّنِيبِينَ } راجعين { إِلَيْهِ } تعالى بما أمر به ونهى عنه حال من فاعل (أقم) وما أريد به، أي أقيموا { وَٱتَّقُوهُ } خافوه { وَأَقِيمُواْ ٱلصَّلوٰةَ وَلاَ تَكُونُواْ مِنَ ٱلْمُشْرِكِينَ }.
{ مِنَ ٱلَّذِينَ } بدل بإعادة الجار { فَرَّقُواْ دِينَهُمْ } باختلافهم فيما يعبدونه { وَكَانُواْ شِيَعاً } فِرَقاً في ذلك { كُلُّ حِزْبٍ } منهم { بِمَا لَدَيْهِمْ } عندهم { فَرِحُونَ } مسرورون، وفي قراءة «فارقوا» أي تركوا دينهم الذي أُمروا به.

turning, referring, to Him, exalted be He, concerning what He has commanded and what He has forbidden (munībīna, ‘turning’ is a circumstantial qualifier referring to the subject [of the verb] aqim, ‘set up’, in other words [addressing the third plural person] aqīmū, ‘set up’) and fear Him and establish prayer and do not be among the idolaters,[of] those (mina’lladhīna is a substitution [for al-mushrikīna, ‘idolaters’] using the same operator of the oblique [min]) who have divided up their religion, by being at variance over what they worship, and have become [dissenting] factions, sects divided over this [matter], each party, among them, rejoicing, delighting, in what they have (a variant reading [for farraqū] is fāraqū, in other words, ‘of those who have parted with the religion to which they have been commanded’).

[* تفسير تفسير الجلالين/ المحلي و السيوطي (ت المحلي 864 هـ) مصنف و مدقق ]

arabic source
http://www.altafsir.com/Tafasir.asp?...0&LanguageId=1

Tafsir ibn khair proves again this is for Idols and kafirs 


{ مِنَ ٱلَّذِينَ فَرَّقُواْ دِينَهُمْ وَكَانُواْ شِيَعاً كُلُّ حِزْبٍ بِمَا لَدَيْهِمْ فَرِحُونَ } أي: لا تكونوا من المشركين الذين قد فرقوا دينهم، أي: بدلوه وغيروه، وآمنوا ببعض، وكفروا ببعض، وقرأ بعضهم: (فارقوا دينهم)، أي: تركوه وراء ظهورهم، وهؤلاء كاليهود والنصارى والمجوس وعبدة الأوثان، وسائر أهل الأديان الباطلة مما عدا أهل الإسلام؛ كما قال تعالى

(Of those who Farraqu Dinahum (split up their religion), and became sects, each sect rejoicing in that which is with it.)means, do not be of the idolators who split up their religion, i.e., changed it by believing in parts of it and rejecting other parts. Some scholars read this as Faraqu Dinahum, meaning "neglected their religion and left it behind them.'' These are like the Jews, Christians, Zoroastrians, idol worshippers and all the followers of false religions, besides the followers of Islam, :

Then ibn khatir says if tafsir of same verse : Follow Ahlus sunnah group [sawad us adham only]


[الأنعام: 159] الآية، فأهل الأديان قبلنا اختلفوا فيما بينهم على آراء ومثل باطلة، وكل فرقة منهم تزعم أنهم على شيء، وهذه الأمة أيضاً اختلفوا فيما بينهم على نحل، كلها ضلالة إلا واحدة، وهم أهل السنة والجماعة، المتمسكون بكتاب الله وسنة رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم وبما كان عليه الصدر الأول من الصحابة والتابعين وأئمة المسلمين في قديم الدهر وحديثه، كما رواه الحاكم في " مستدركه ": أنه سئل رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم عن الفرقة الناجية منهم فقال:

(Verily, those who divide their religion and break up into sects, you have no concern in them in the least. Their affair is only with Allah) (6:159). The followers of the religions before us had differences of opinions and split into false sects, each group claiming to be following the truth. This Ummah too has split into sects, all of which are misguided apart from one, which is Ahlus-Sunnah Wal-Jama`ah, those who adhere to the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of the Messenger of Allah and what was followed by the first generations, the Companions, their followers, and the Imams of the Muslims of earlier and later times. In his Mustadrak, Al-Hakim recorded that the Messenger of Allah was asked which of the sects was the saved sect and he said:
[* تفسير تفسير القرآن الكريم/ ابن كثير (ت 774 هـ) مصنف و مدقق ]

arabic source
http://www.altafsir.com/Tafasir.asp?...1&LanguageId=1


Misquotation of Quranic verse # 5

“As for those who divide their religion and break up into sects, thou hast No part in them in the least their affair is with Allah: He will in the end Tell them the truth Of all that they did.”
[Al-Qur'an 6:159] 

Tafsir al jalalayn 



{ إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ فَرَّقُواْ دِينَهُمْ } باختلافهم فيه فأخذوا بعضه وتركوا بعضه { وَكَانُواْ شِيَعاً } فرقاً في ذلك. وفي قراءة «فارقوا» أي تركوا دينهم الذي أمروا به وهم اليهود والنصارى { لَّسْتَ مِنْهُمْ فِى شَىْءٍ } أي فلا تتعرّض لهم { إِنَّمَا أَمْرُهُمْ إِلَى ٱللَّهِ } يتولاه { ثُمَّ يُنَبِّئُهُم } في الآخرة { بِمَا كَانُواْ يَفْعَلُونَ } فيجازيهم به، وهذا منسوخ بآية السيف[5:9].

Those who have sundered their religion, by being at variance over it, accepting some [aspects] of it and rejecting others, and have become differing parties, sects with regard to such [matters] (a variant reading [for farraqū, ‘they have sundered’] has fāraqū, meaning that they have abandoned the religion to which they were enjoined, and they are the Jews and the Christians), you have no concern with them at all, in other words, do not be concerned with them. Their case will go to God — He will take charge of it — then He will inform them, in the Hereafter, of what they used to do, and requite them for it: this was abrogated by the ‘sword’ verse [Q. 9:5].

arabic link
http://www.altafsir.com/Tafasir.asp?...0&LanguageId=1

Tafsir ibn khatir says on this verse


قال مجاهد وقتادة والضحاك والسدي: نزلت هذه الآية في اليهود والنصارى. وقال العوفي عن ابن عباس في قوله: { إِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ فَرَّقُواْ دِينَهُمْ وَكَانُواْ شِيَعًا }: وذلك أن اليهود والنصارى اختلفوا قبل مبعث محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم فتفرقوا، فلما بعث محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم أنزل الله عليه



Mujahid, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak and As-Suddi said that this Ayah was revealed about the Jews and Christians. Al-`Awfi said that Ibn `Abbas commented,

(Verily, those who divide their religion and break up into sects...) "Before Muhammad was sent, the Jews and Christians disputed and divided into sects. When Muhammad was sent, Allah revealed to him,

Arabic link
http://www.altafsir.com/Tafasir.asp?...0&LanguageId=1




Misquotation of Quranic Verse # 6 o

“Truly Pharaoh elated himself in the land and broke up its people into sects … for he was indeed a maker of mischief.”

(Quran, 28:4)

Tafsir al jalalyn



{ إِنَّ فِرْعَوْنَ عَلاَ } تعظّم { فِى ٱلأَرْضِ } أرض مصر { وَجَعَلَ أَهْلَهَا شِيَعاً } فِرَقاً في خدمته { يَسْتَضْعِفُ طَآئِفَةً مِّنْهُمْ } هم بنو إسرائيل { يُذَبِّحُ أَبْنَآءَهُمْ } المولودين { وَيَسْتَحِى نِسَآءَهُم } يستبقيهنّ أحياء، لقول بعض الكهنة له: إنّ مولوداً يولد في بني إسرائيل يكون سبب زوال ملكك { إِنَّهُ كَانَ مِنَ ٱلْمُفْسِدِينَ } بالقتل وغيره

Truly Pharaoh had exalted himself in the land, the land of Egypt, and reduced its people into sects, groups, to serve him, oppressing a group of them, namely, the Children of Israel, slaughtering their sons, the new-born, and sparing their women, keeping them alive — for some of the [Egyptian] priests had told him, ‘A new-born of the Children of Israel shall bring about the end of your kingdom’. Indeed he was of those who cause corruption, through [the use of] slaughter and otherwise.

http://www.altafsir.com/Tafasir.asp?...0&LanguageId=1

This verse is not even talking about religious sects,
 but sects [groups] like Salves, governors, soldiers, ministers etc which firon made ,  , I am sure no one will take this as religious sects now


Misquotation of Quranic Verse # 7

The same religion has He established for you as that which He enjoined on Noah - the which We have sent by inspiration to thee - and that which We enjoined on Abraham, Moses, and Jesus: Namely, that ye should remain steadfast in religion, and make no divisions therein: to those who worship other things than Allah, hard is the (way) to which thou callest them. Allah chooses to Himself those whom He pleases, and guides to Himself those who turn (to Him).

“[Ironically] they broke up into sects only after the knowledge had come to them, due to jealousy and resentment among themselves.” 
(Quran, 42:14-15)

Tafsir al jalanyn says 


{ وَمَا تَفَرَّقُواْ } أي أهل الأديان في الدين بأن وحّد بعض وكفر بعض { إِلاَّ مِن بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَهُمُ ٱلْعِلْمُ } بالتوحيد { بَغِيّاً } من الكافرين { بَيْنَهُمْ وَلَوْلاَ كَلِمَةٌ سَبَقَتْ مِن رَّبّكَ } بتأخير الجزاء { إِلَىٰ أَجَلٍ مُّسَمًّى } يوم القيامة { لَقُضِيَ بَيْنَهُمْ } بتعذيب الكافرين في الدنيا { وَإِنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ أُورِثُواْ ٱلْكِتَٰبَ مِن بَعْدِهِمْ } وهم اليهود والنصارى { لَفِى شَكٍّ مِّنْهُ } من محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم { مُرِيبٍ } موقع في الريبة.

And they did not become divided, that is, the adherents of the [monotheistic] religions [did not become divided] in religion — so that some affirmed the Oneness [of God], while others rejected it — except after the knowledge, of His Oneness, had come to them, out of [jealous] rivalry, on the part of the disbelievers, among themselves. And were it not for a Word that preceded from your Lord, to defer requital [of them], until an appointed term, [until] the Day of Resurrection, it would have [already] been judged between them, to chastise the disbelievers in this world. And indeed those who were made heirs to the Scripture after them, namely, the Jews and the Christians, are truly in grave doubt concerning him, Muhammad (s).

arabic source
http://www.altafsir.com/Tafasir.asp?...0&LanguageId=1


Conclusion 


All of above verses are highly misquoted by Zakir naik and others , this is infact khawarijism which these people use to misguide others

So Quranic verses quoted above mean either not to Break from the Majority group [ sawad us azam] as proven from Hadiths and become smaller sects when it comes to muslims as well.today these verses can be applied for those sects or deviant groups which have left the sawad ul azam [the jammah] and seperated and made smaller sects, like wahabis [pseudo salafis] , etc , details in next posts with hadiths
__________________











Concept of a Mujadad [ mujadid, revivalist] in Islam

SAhih hadith states

Syyeduna Abu-Hurayrah Radi ALLAHu Anho narrates that Syyeduna Rasoolullah Sallallaho Alaihi Wa Sallam said:

ان الله تعالى يبعث لهذه الامة على

رأس كلّ مائة سنة من يجدد لها دينها

Verily Allah will send at the beginning of every century such a person for this Ummah who will rejuvenate and restore their religion (Deen).

Above stated Hadith is recorded by the following Hadith Masters:

►Imam Abu-Da'ood recorded it

► and Imam Hakim in his Mustadrak, 

►Imam Bayhaqee in his Al-Ma'rifah,

► reported by the great Hadith Master Imam Jalal al-Deen Suyootee in his al-Jama'e al-Sagheer fi Hadith al-Basheer wal-Nazeer,

► Imam Bayhaqee also narrates in his Al-Mudkhal 

►Imam Hasan bin Sufyan and Imam Bazar both in their Musnads, 

►Imam Tabranee in his al-Mu'jam al-al-Awsat, 

►Imam Ibn 'Adee in his Kamil and Imam Abu-Na'eem in his al-Hil'ya

Commenting on the authenticity of the above Hadith Shareef, Allama Imam Isma'eel Haqqee records in his marginal notes of Siraj al-Muneer Sharh Jame'h al-Sagheer:

"My Shaykh said that there is a consensus of the Hadith Masters that this Hadith is Sahih."

Amongst the later Hadith Masters that verified this Hadith Shareef as Sahih are Imam Allama Abul-Fadl Iraqee and Imam Allama ibn Hajr and amongst the predecessor Masters, Imam Hakim author of Sahih al-Mustadrak and Imam Bayhaqee author of al-Mudkhal.. .


Imam Jalaludeen Suyooti in his Mirqat al-Saood's marginal notes of Sunan Abu-Da'ood records:
اتفق الحفاظ على تصحيحه
It is a consensus of the Muhadditheen (Hadith Masters) that this Hadith is Sahih.

In other the words, when there comes a period in which there is a shortage of knowledge and a deterioration in following of the Sunnah; when there is an increase in false innovations and ignorance; then Almighty Allah will send a person at the beginning or end of every century who will show the difference between Sunnah and Bid'at. He will refute and destroy false innovations and will fear none but Almighty Allah. He will very bravely and sincerely hoist the flag of Deen-e-Muhammadi (Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam). Such a person is known as a "Mujaddid" (Reviver) of Deen.

The author of the book, "Siraj al-Muneer Sharh Jame'h al-Sagheer", has explained who a Mujaddid is in the following words:

,"In other words, to revive the Deen is to revive those teachings of the Quran and Sunnah that are being destroyed and to give command according to the Quran and Sunnah."

Allamah Munaadi (Alaihir raHma) states:

"A Mujaddid is one who separates Sunnah from Bid'ah and one who degrades the status of the Ahle Bid'ah."



Why does a Mujaddid come after 100 years?

A Mujaddid is sent after every 100 years because after every century the surroundings, the environment, the manner of thinking and ways of the people tend to pass through a massive transformation. It has been stated in the Hadith of Bukhari Shareef that during the latter stages of the Prophet's (Sallallahu Alaihi wa Sallam) physical life, one night, after performing Esha Salaah, he stood up and said,
u"Should I inform you of the importance of this night? From this night onwards, right up to the end of a 100 years, that person who is alive on the earth (presently) will not be alive."


The concept of Tajdeed (Revival) of Deen:

The correct meaning or concept of Tajdeed (Revival) is that one or more qualities are found in a person through which Ummat-e-Muhammadiyya benefit religiously e.g. imparting Islamic education, lecturing, and propagation, informing and forbidding people of evil and assisting the truthful.

The Qualities of a Mujaddid:

1) It is not necessary that a Mujaddid be from the Ahle-Bayt as claimed by the Shias and other sects


2) It is not necessary that a Mujaddid be a Mujtahid

3) What is absolutely necessary is that he be a Sunni with correct beliefs according to the Ahle-Sunnah wa Jamah

4) He be profound Aalim of Deen

5) He be a Master and embodiment of most of the Sciences of Knowledge

6) He be an outstanding Scholar of his time

7) His services for the Deen be purely for the pleasure of Allah and His Rasool and not for greed of wealth and other worldly gain

8) He be fearless of opposition and rulers of his time 

9) He will not act or give verdicts to please any person besides Allah and His Rasool

10) He will not fear speaking or advocating Truth in all circumstances

11) He will not use Religion to gain worldly fame

12) He will be a very pious and Allah fearing person

13) He will perfect mixture of the Sharee'ah and Taree'qah

14) He will not tolerate any opposition to the Sharee'ah

15) And according to 'Allama Imam Isma'il Haqqee, it is necessary for a Mujaddid that both in the last portion of the century he was born in and the beginning of the century he passes away in, he be famous and be a fountain and focal authority of religion for the Ulama of his time.

16) It is also necessary for a Mujaddid that the Scholars (Ulama) of his time observe, benefit and be convinced of his impeccable lifestyle and profound knowledge and hence acknowledge and announce in public that he is a Mujaddid.

17) Therefore it is important that a Mujaddid be a perfect embodiment and Alim of both the external (Sharee'ah) and internal (Spiritual) sciences of Knowledge promoting the protecting the Sunnah and fighting and destroying Bid'ah.



Identification of a Mujaddid:

Shaykh al-Islam Imam Badr al-Deen Abdal states in his book, Risalah Mardiyyah fi al-Nusrat Madhab al-Ash'riyyah:

"A Mujaddid is recognized by the strong opinion of his contemporary noble Ulama who greatly benefit from his condition and prolific Knowledge. He will be an embodiment of both external and internal sciences of Knowledge supporting and defending the Sunnah and challenging and defeating Bid'ah."

Can their be more than one Mujaddid to a century?

There can be more, and there has already been more than one Mujaddid to a Century. In the Hadith, the Arabic word that is used to explain the coming of the Mujaddid is in the singular tense, but according to the meaning, it is a plural as it has been explained in the Kitaabs of Usool-e-Fiqh. Allamah Mulla Ali bin Sultan Qaari (Alaihir rahmah) who is also said to be the Mujaddid of the 11th Century says,

"From the words, not only one single person is implied, but the implication is towards a group of people, from amongst whom each one is reforming a single type of knowledge or all types of knowledge in his city."

So, Sometimes a single Mujaddid is born in a century and sometimes there are two or a group in one given century when a consensus cannot be reached on one person. There are time when an Alim be in the middle of century who may be more knowledgeable and excellent than the Mujaddid, but he will not be classified as a Mujaddid because he did not get the early stages of the century. This is so because generally when the century ends many of the great Ulama also pass away and great dissension and Fitna engulfs the Ummah. Bid'ah and religious corruption creeps into the masses who tend to deviate from the pristine teachings of Islam. At this crucial period there is a great need for revival and renaissance in matters of Deen. At this critical time Allah sends such an Aalim who removes all evil and religious corruption from the Ummah by publicly announcing and refuting them. He will be the best of people and most awesome amongst the dignitaries of his time.

List of Possible Mujaddids (Revivalists)

First Century (after the Prophetic period) (August 3, 718)

Ameer al-Mu'minin Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz (682 - 720)
Imam-e-Azam Abu Hanifa an-Nu'man (699 - 767)
Ibn Sireen (8th century)

Second Century (August 10, 815)

Imam Muhammad ibn Idris ash-Shafi`i (767 - 820)
Imam Hasan al-Basri (642 - 728 or 737)
Imam Malik ibn Anas (715 - 796)
Imam Muhammad bin Hassan Shaibani

Third Century (August 17, 912)

Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal (780 - 855)
Imam Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari.

Fourth Century (August 24, 1009)

Imam al-Bayhaqi
Imam Tahtaawi
Imam Isma'eel bin Hammaad Ja'fari
Imam Abu Jaafar bin Jareer Tibri
Imam Abu Haatim Raazi

Fifth Century (September 1, 1106)

Hudrat Ghawth al Azam Shaykh Abdul-Qadir Gilani
Imam Al-Ghazali (1058–1111)
Imam Abu Naeem Isfahani
Imam Abul Hussain Ahmad bin Muhammad Abi Bakr-il-Qaadir
Imam Hussain bin Raaghib

Sixth Century (September 9, 1203)

Imam Fakhr al-Din al-Razi
Shaykh Ahamd Kabir Rifa'ee
Allamah Imam Umar Nasfi,
Imam Qaazi Fakhrud'Deen Hassan Mansoor,
Imam Abu Muhammad Hussain bin Mas'ood Fara'a

Seventh Century

Imam Taqiyuddin As-Subki
Imam Sheikh Shahbuddeen Suharwardi
Imam Sheikh Akbar Muhi'yuddeen Muhammad ibn Arabi
Allamah Imam Abul Fadhl Jamaaluddeen Muhammad bin Afriqi Misri
Hadrat Khwaja Moinuddin Chisti Garib Nawaz
Imam Abul Hassan Uz'zuddeen Ali bin Muhammad Ibn Atheer,

Eighth Century (September 23, 1397)

Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalani
Imam Taaj'uddeen bin Ata'ullah Sikandari
Kwaja Nizaamuddeen Awliyah Mahboob-e-Ilahi
Imam Umar bin Mas'ood Taftazaani

Ninth Century (October 1, 1494)

Imam Hafiz Jallaluddeen Abu Bakr Abdur Rahmaan Suyuti
Imam Nooruddeen bin Ahmad Misri
Imam Muhammad bin Yusuf Karmani
Imam Shamsuddeen Abul Kheyr Muhammad bin Abdur Rahmaan Sakhawi,
Allamah Imam Sayed Shareef Ali bin Muhammad Jarmaani

Tenth Century (October 19, 1591)

Imam Shahabuddeen Abu Bakr Ahmad bin Muhammad Khatib Qistalaani
Imam Muhammad Sharbini,
Allamah Sheikh Muhammad Taahir Muhaddith

Eleventh Century (October 26, 1688)

Imam-e-Rabbani Mujaddid Alf Sani Shaykh Ahmad Sirhindi
Sultaanul Arifeen Imam Muhammad Baahu
Imam Ali bin Sultaan Qaari

Twelfth Century

Al-Sultan al-Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram Abul Muzaffar Muhiuddin Muhammad Aurangzeb Bahadur Alamgir
Imam Abdul Ghani Naablisi
Sheikh Ahmad Mulla Jeewan
Al-Qutb Abd Allah al-Haddad
Allamah Mawlana Imam Abul Hassan Muhammad bin Abdul Haadi Sindhi,

Thirteenth Century

Allamah Imam Ahmad bin Ismaeel Tahtaawi
Allamah Shah Abdul Azeez Muhaddith-e-Delhwi
Imam Abdul Ali Luckhnowi
Imam Sheikh Ahmad Saadi Maaliki

Fourteenth Century
Shaykh al Islam wal Muslimeen, Mujaddid-e-Aazam AlaHadrat Ash-Shah Imam Ahmad Rida Khan al-Qadiri










The Correct Meaning of the Statement “When a Hadīth Is Authentic, It Is My Opinion”

The following is an excerpt from our abridged translation of the masterpiece, Athar al-Hadīth al-Sharīf fī Ikhtilāf al-A’immah al-Fuqahā’, by the Syrian Hadīth scholar, the teacher of our teachers, Shaykh Muhammad ‘Awwāmah. There were numerous requests for an abridged translation of the work for the benefit of non-Arabic readers, as the original work is relatively lengthy. The abridged translation has now been completed. We will post sections of it in instalments and finally publish the complete abridgement in a separate post.
The excerpt before you is a clarification of a famous statement issued by the Imāms of the madhhabs, “When a Hadīth is authentic, it is my opinion.” In recent times, a literal and overzealous reading of this statement has led to a lot of confusion and misunderstanding. In this excerpt, Shaykh Muhammad ‘Awwāmah provides quotations from leading scholars of each madhhab that explain the correct purport of this statement. Moreover, he presents several examples of individuals who attempted to practice on the outward meaning of this statement and as a result were subject to criticism by leading scholars.
To make the article more reader-friendly, an idiomatic translation was adopted in several places. In contrast to the remainder of the abridgement, this section of the work was for the most part left as it is in the original.
Muntasir Zaman
Sha‘bān, 25, 1435
The Correct Meaning of the Statement “When a Hadīth Is Authentic, It Is My Opinion”
By Shaykh Muhammad ‘Awwamah
Translated by Muntasir Zaman
Before concluding the first cause of difference, it is necessary to discuss two doubts that dwell in the minds of many people:
  • The statement, “When a Hadīth is authentic, it is my opinion”
  • The authenticity of a Hadīth is sufficient to practice upon it
The first doubt is put forth as follows:
Imām al-Shāfī‘ī mentions, “When a Hadīth is authentic, it is my opinion.’ Hence, if we come across an authentic Hadith in Sahīh al-Bukhārī, for example, in a particular issue and we practice according to that Hadīth, then we have practiced upon an established Sunnah and according to a reliable school of jurisprudence. Moreover, it is incorrect to confine the madhhab of Imām al-Shafi‘ī to what is written in the works of his school of jurisprudence because, based on his own statement, any authentic Hadith will also form part of his madhhab.”
The answer is that the statement “When a Hadīth is authentic, it is my opinion” has been recorded from scholars besides Imām al-Shāfi‘ī. Rather, this is the mute expression of every Muslim who understands the meaning of the statement, “there is none worthy of worship besides Allāh, and Muhammad is His messenger.”
In his Tafsīr, after quoting the above statement from Imām al-Shāfi‘ī, Hafiż Ibn Kathīr [d. 774 AH] comments:
This was due to his integrity and honesty, and this is the view of his brothers from the Imāms (Allah be pleased be pleased with them all).
Furthermore, Hāfiż Abū Zur‘a al-‘Irāqī [d. 826 AH] writes:
In my opinion, it does not behoove any person of understanding who can distinguish between authentic and weak narrations, has a deep understanding of legal theory and Arabic, and is well versed with the differences and sources of the Salaf, when he comes across an authentic narration that contradicts the opinion of his Imām, that he turns a blind eye to the hadith and continues to practice on the opinion of his Imām.[1]
However, the correct meaning of their statement is “When a Hadīth is suitable for practice, it is my opinion.” Numerous scholars from the three schools of jurisprudence, i.e. Hanafī, Shāfī‘ī and Mālikī, have articulated this explanation.
Statements from the Scholars of the Hanafī School
In his commentary on al-Hidāya, Ibn al-Shihna al-Kabīr [d. 815] writes:
When a person finds a Sahīh Hadīth that is contrary to the madhhab, he should practice on that Hadīth, as that will be his madhhab. By doing this, he will remain a Hanafī because it has been authentically recorded that Imām Abū Hanīfa said, “When a Hadīth is authentic, it is my opinion.” Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr has related this statement from Imām Abu Hanīfa and other Imāms besides him.
In his Book Radd al-Muhtār, after quoting the above statement, Ibn ‘Ābidīn [d. 1252 AH] comments:
Imām al-Sha‘rānī has related a similar statement from the four Imāms. It is evident that [this address] is directed to those who are qualified to examine scriptural texts and distinguish between abrogated [texts] from non-abrogated [ones]. Hence, when the scholars of the madhhab examine evidence and act upon it, its attribution to the madhhab is sound because it was issued by the permission of the founder of the madhhab, since there is no doubt that if he knew the weakness of his proof, he would retract from it and follow the stronger proof.[2]
He further writes:
Any view for which there is an authentic report without conflicting evidence will be the position of themujtahid even if he he did not explicitly state as such. This is due to what we have presented earlier in the preface [relating] from Hafiż Ibn ‘Abd al-Barr and Imām al-Sha‘rānī that each of the four Imāms said, “When a Hadith is authentic, it is my opinion.”[3]
He also discusses this issue in his treatise, “Sharh Rasm al-Muftī”, wherein he places an additional condition. He writes:
This ought to be restricted to an opinion of the madhhab, because they have not permitted ijtihādoutside the madhahb from what our Imāms have agreed uponbecause their ijtihād is greater than hisijtihād, since it is evident that they came across evidence stronger than what he came across, due to which they did not practice upon it.
I wish draw attention to two points:
  1. Some deceptive people quote the above statement of Ibn Shihna from the marginalia of Ibn ‘Ābidīn, Rad al-Muhtār, [without mentioning the remarks of Ibn ‘Ābidīn] giving people the impression that this is the opinion of the scholars, in particular Ibn ‘Abidīn who is the seal of the latter-day critical researcher of themadhhab. Likewise, they deceptively quote similar statements from al-Mīzān al-Kubrā of al-Sha‘rānī, and tell people, “He [al-Sha‘rānī] is a reliable Sūfī scholar whose statements are accepted among the followers of the Imāms of the madhhab!” He is as they describe, but this is truthful speech produced for a corrupt motive.
  1. The statement of ‘Ibn ‘Ābidīn “It is evident that [this address] is directed to those who are qualified to…” is very important to note, as the statement “It is evident” in our terms is similar to “common sense”, so Ibn ‘Ābidīn considers this restriction, i.e. qualification, as common sense and such that no one should be ignorant regarding it. An example of common sense is the indication of the statement “the sun has risen” that it is day and not night. Similarly, the statement of the Imām, “When a Hadīth is authentic, it is my opinion” indicates without any doubt that this address is directed to those who are qualified to examine scriptural texts and distinguish between abrogated [texts] from non-abrogated [ones]. Thus, it is incorrect for these ignoramuses or misled [half] students to act bold regarding this issue.
In his book, Daf‘ al-Awhām, ‘Allāmah ‘Abd al-Ghaffār ‘Uyūn al-Sūd [d. 1349 AH] quotes the statement of Ibn Shihna and the restrictions placed by Ibn ‘Abidīn, after which he writes:
It is an excellent restriction because we see in our era many misled people, who are affiliated with knowledge, assume themselves above the stars whereas they are beneath the gutters. They read one of the six canonical books of Hadīth, for example, and come across a Hadīth that apparently contradicts the madhhab of Imām Abū Hanīfa so they say, “Throw the madhhab of Imām Abū Hanīfa against the wall, and hold firm unto the Hadīth of the Messenger of Allāh (peace and blessing be upon him).” They do not realize that this Hadīth is possibly abrogated or opposed by a Hadith with a stronger sanad. If these people are left to practice on any Hadīth without restrictions, not only will they deviate but will lead astray anyone who follows them. [4]
In such instances, the pseudo-propagators of practicing on the Sunnah cause a commotion by saying, “Is it permissible for you to pass a ruling of deviance on those who practice on the Sunnah and instruct others to do so?” We respond to such a question in the affirmative if the person lacks the qualifications for that position. We consider him a deviant not because he practices on the Sunnah-we seek Allah’s protection from that- rather, because of his audacity in assuming a post for which he is unqualified.
We have been preceded in passing such a ruling by an authority of Hadīth and jurisprudence, Imām ‘Abd Allah ibn Wahb al-Misrī, one of Imām Malik’s esteemed students in Madīnah and Imām al-Layth ibn Sa‘d’s students in Egypt. He says, “Hadīth can be a means of deviance except for the scholars.”
Imām Ibn Abū Zayd al-Qayrawānī says, “[Sufyān] Ibn ‘Uyanah mentions, ‘Hadīth can be a means of deviance except for the scholars’. He intends by it that non-scholars may interpret a Hadīth literally even though a separate Hadīth explains it differently, an evidence is unknown to him, or that Hadīth is dismissed due to relevant factors that necessitate such, all issues that only highly qualified jurists are capable of comprehending.
Statements from the Scholars of the Shāfī‘ī School
In his monumental commentary, Sharh al-Muhadhdhab, Imām al-Nawawī [d. 676 AH] has discussed this issue in detail wherein he says:
[It is reported that al-Shafi‘i (Allah have mercy on him) said, “When you find in my book [anything] contrary to the Sunnah of Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings be upon him), then accept theSunnah of Allah’s Messenger (peace and blessings be upon him) and leave my opinion.” Moreover, it was reported from him, “When a Sahih hadith is contrary to my opinion, act upon the hadith and leave my opinion,” or he said “then it is my madhhab.” The purport of this has been narrated with different wordings.]
Our [Shafi‘i] companions have acted on this in the issue of tathwīb, the condition of being released from ihram due to illness and other [issues] besides these which are known in the books of the madhhab.
The meaning of what al-Shafi‘i said is not that everyone who sees an authentic hadith can say, “This is the madhhab of al-Shafi‘i,” and act on its outward [meaning]. This is only for those who have reached the rank of ijtihad in the madhhab, [the description of which has preceded, or close to it]. It is [also] a condition that he predominantly thinks that al-Shafi‘i (Allah have mercy on him) did not come across this hadith or did not know its authenticity. However, this is only [possible] after studying all the books of al-Shafi‘ī, the books of his companions who took from him and what resembles them. This is a difficult condition, and rarely does one acquire this [qualification]. The scholars have placed this condition because al-Shafi‘i (Allah have mercy on him) avoided acting on the outward [meaning] of many narrations which he saw and knew but a proof was erected before him invalidating it or abrogating it or specifying it or interpreting it etc.
Shaykh Abu ‘Amr, i.e. Ibn al-Salāh, says, “Acting on the apparent meaning of what al-Shafi‘i said is not easy, because it is not permissible for every jurist to independently act on what he believes is proof from Hadith. From the Shafi‘is who trod this path in acting on a Hadith, which al-Shafi‘i left deliberately although he knew its authenticity due to an obstacle which he comprehended and was hidden to others, is Abu ‘l-Walīd Mūsā ibn Abi ‘l-Jārūd, a student of al-Shafi‘ī.  He said, ‘The Hadith, “The cupper and the cupped have broken the fast,” is authenticso I say, ‘Al-Shafii‘s opinion is that the cupper and the cupped have broken the fast.’ The scholars did not accept this from Abu ‘l-Walīd because al-Shafi‘i left it, despite knowing its authenticity, because it was abrogated according to him. Al-Shafi‘i clarified its abrogation and adduced proof against it.”[5]
It will be appropriate to add over here what ‘Allāmah al-Kawtharī [d. 1371 AH] has alluded to in his statement:
[In many rulings, Imām Abū Hanīfa followed the likes of Shurayh and al-Nakha‘ī without taking the effort to recognize their evidences. However, when the correct opinion is apparent and proof is found that contradicts this view, it is incorrect to ascribe to his ijtihād that which he followed someone else without evidence and the invalidity of that opinion is apparent like the clarity of morning, because ijtihād is only in issues where there is no scriptural text…[6]]
From this statement, we learn that when the following conditions are found it is incorrect to attribute to the Imām the opinion that is contrary to clear proof because ijtihād is in those issues where there is no textual evidence:
  1. When it is evident that the Imām of the madhhab opted for this view without effort [in searching for evidence], and just followed someone else
  2. The correct opinion is apparent and proof is produced contrary to his view
  3. The mistake of the person the Imām followed is apparent like the clarity of morning
‘Allāmah al-Kawtharī also writes:
The statement of Imām al-Shāfi‘ī “When a Hadīth is authentic, it is my opinion” does not mean “Every Hadīth anyone has classified as authentic I [al-Shāfi‘ī] will practice upon it and retract from my original view.” The correct meaning is “When a Hadīth is authentic with its relevant prerequisites and its indication is clear, I [al-Shāfi‘ī] will practice upon it” otherwise, his madhhab will be incoherent.
Scholars have criticized Abū Muhammad al-Juwaynī when he attempted to compile a book gathering therein rulings in which there are authentic narrations according to him, and ascribe them to Imām al-Shāfī‘ī. He premised this on the aforementioned statement of Imām al-Shāfī‘ī. However, Hadīth scholars realized that he [al-Juwaynī] would authenticate unauthentic narrations, and ascribe the opinions extracted from those narrations as opinions of Imām al-Shāfī‘ī, so they prevented him from doing so.[7]
In his treatise, Ma‘nā Qawl al-Imām al-Muttalibī: īdhā Sahh al-Hadīth fahuwa MadhhabīImām al-Taqī al-Subkī [d. 756 AH] writes:
Abu ‘l-Walīd al-Naysābūrī [d. 349 AH], one of our leading scholars, would take an oath that the opinion of al-Shāfī‘ī is that the fast of the cupper and the cupped is invalid, basing this on that [the Hadīth in this regard is authentic, and Imām al-Shāfi‘ī says, “When a Hadīth is authentic, it is my opinion.”] However, scholars refuted him with a similar answer [al-Shāfi‘ī did not practice on it despite knowing its authenticity because according to him it was abrogated] just as they refuted Ibn Abi ‘l-Jārūd. This is like an issue where some Mujtahids slip, but to accuse of error is difficult due to the vastness of understanding….
It has been related that Abu ‘l-Hasan Muhammad al-Karajī al-Shāfi‘ī, who was a jurist and Hadīth scholar, would not make Qunūt in the Morning Prayer [an opinion of the Shāfi‘ī madhhab]. He would say, “According to me it has been authentically transmitted from the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) that he would not make Qunūt in the Morning Prayer…”
Hence, Imam-al-Subkī – also did not make Qunūt for a period of time. Thereafter, I learned that the authentic report of the Messenger of Allah making Qunūt in the Morning Prayer refers to the supplication against [the tribes of] Ri‘l and Dhakwān, and in prayers besides the Morning Prayer. As for leaving Qunūt out completely after Qiyām in the Morning Prayer, there is the narration transmitted by ‘Isā ibn Māhān regarding whom there is well-known criticism but this is not the place to elucidate. Accordingly, I retracted from my view and now I [once again] make Qunūt. In this there is no objection against Imām al-Shāfī‘ī, rather it is only a deficiency on our part in examining. [8]
In this excerpt, there is great lesson for those willing to heed! When this is the condition of Ibn Abi ‘l-Jārūd, who was a student of Imām al-Shāfi‘ī, and whose academic standing needs no introduction. Moreover, like him, rather more eminent than him, is Abu ‘l-Walīd al-Naysābūrī, who was not only a narrator, but an authority in al-Dirāya as well, yet he would take an oath and ascribe to al-Shāfi‘ī practice on such a Hadīth that al-Shāfi‘ī deliberately did not practice on because he considered it abrogated. When this is the condition of these great personalities, what can we say regarding the people of our time? Does it make sense that they practically demonstrate on [the madhhab of] Imām al-Shāfī his statement even though they hardly comprehend one of al-Shāfi‘ī’s opinions?[9]
Similarly, Abu ‘l-Hasan al-Karajī, who al-Subkī describes as a jurist and Hadīth scholar, and his student, al-Sam‘ānī describes him as “An authority, ascetic, scholar, intellectual, jurist, Muftī, Hadīth scholar, poet and linguist”[10], yet we find him opposing the Imām of his madhhab by not practicing on Qunūt on the basis that the Hadīth in this regard is authentic, and his Imām clearly stated, “When a Hadīth is authentic, it is my opinion” and, “Leave my opinion and practice and the Hadīth.” Despite this, those after him criticized him, amongst whom is al-Tāj ibn al-Subkī in his encyclopedia of biographical entries, Tabaqāt al-Shāfi‘īya, in the entry of al-Karajī.
After mentioning the stance of Abu ‘l-Hasan al-Karajī, al-Tāj al-Subkī [d. 771 AH] writes:
In front of him is two extremely difficult obstacles. The first is proving the authenticity of the Hadīth- in leaving out Qunūt-what a difficult task! The second is to attribute this opinion to the madhhab of Imām al-Shāfi‘ī, which is also a difficult task.[11]
Likewise, al-Taqī al-Subkī would make Qunūt in the Morning Prayer in accordance to the Shafī‘ī madhhabupon which he was brought up. Then after coming to know of the incident of al-Karajī, he omitted the Qunūt. Thereafter, he retracted and began making Qunūt. Al-Subkī is an Imām justifiably described as an “unrestricted mujtahīd” or a “mujtahid in the madhhab.” His contemporary Hafiż al-Dhahabī [d. 748 AH] described him-despite their mutual difference- as the leader of his era in Hadīth and jurisprudence.
When the likes of al-Subkī got tangled up in such a confusion, keeping in mind his academic position, is it permissible for those who are [exponentially] inferior to him to cling unto the outward meaning of al-Shāfī‘ī’s statement. Furthermore, is it permissible for them to hastily practice on authentic narrations confusing themselves and others in the process pretending to practice on the dictates of the statement of a reliable Imām of the Muslims? [Accordingly, they say,] “How could we be blamed?”
Thereafter, al-Subkī quotes a lengthy excerpt from Abū Shāmah al-Maqdisī in this regard, the beginning of which is:
Abū Shāma, the student of Ibn al-Salāh and the teacher of al-Nawawī, who was extremely particular about following Hadīth, mentions…
Then he quotes the entire statement of Abū Shāmah, the ending of which is:
Only that scholar can assume this task who has reached the ranks of ijtihād. It was such a person who Imām al-Shāfī‘ī was addressing when he said, “When you find the Hadīth of the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) contrary to my opinion, then opt for the Hadīth and leave my opinion” and this is not everyone’s task.[12]
It is narrated in Sahīh al-Bukhārī on the authority of Ibn ‘Umar that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) would lift his hands when standing for the third rak‘a.[13] In his monumental commentary, Fath al-Bārī, under the commentary of this Hadīth, Hāfiż Ibn Hajar [d. 852 AH] writes:
Al-Khattābī mentions, “Imām al-Shāfī‘ī did not practice on this Hadīth even though it is the implication of his stance in the issue of accepting addition (qabūl al-ziyāda). Ibn Khuzayma says, “It is a Sunnahdespite al-Shāfī‘ī not mentioning it, as the isnād is authentic, and he [al-Shāfī‘ī] stated, “Practice on theSunnah, and leave my opinion.”
Ibn Daqīq al-‘Id says, “Based on the dictates of al-Shāfī‘i’s view, lifting the hands therein should be recommended, as he establishes the lifting of hands when going to Rukū‘ and getting up from there. However, to make it part of al-Shāfī‘i’s madhhab because he said, “When a Hadīth is authentic, it is my opinion” is problematic.
[Hāfiż Ibn Hajar says] The reason this is problematic is because the situation to practice upon this advice is when it is known that al-Shāfī‘ī did not come across this Hadīth. However, if we come to know that he came across it but rejected it or interpreted it, then no. In this situation, both are possible.
In view of this essential clarification from these pious authorities of jurisprudence and Hadīth, it becomes evident who al-Shāfī‘ī was addressing with his statement. He did not intend these claimants to superiority over knowledge and scholars who in their true state and reality are [academically] crippled.
Statements from the Scholars of the Mālikī School
In his book, Sharh al-Tanqīh, Imām Shihāb al-Dīn Abu ‘l-‘Abbās al-Qarāfī al-Mālikī [d. 684 AH] expounds on the prerequisites for assuming this task wherein he says:
Many Shāfī‘ī jurists rely on this principle and say, “This is the opinion of al-Shāfī‘ī, as the Hadīth in this regard is authentic.” This is an erroneous approach because first they must ascertain the absence of conflicting evidence, which requires a comprehensive study of Sharī‘ah after which one can safely claim, “There is no conflicting evidence for this Hadīth.”
As for the comprehensive study of other than an unrestricted mujtahid is irrelevant. Accordingly, the Shafī‘ī who claims [“This is the opinion of al-Shāfī‘ī, as…”] should firstly acquire the ability of comprehensive study [of Sharī‘ah] before he passes such a verdict. [14]
Hence, if we wish to attribute a view to the Shafī‘ī madhhab due to the authenticity of the Hadīth supporting it, then it is imperative that we first conduct an extensive study to ensure the absence of conflicting evidence. Further, to ascertain the absence of conflicting evidence one requires the ability to comprehensively study the entire Sharī‘ah, not only Hādīth, which is the sole task of a mujtahid.
This statement of al-Qarāfī al-Mālikī reminds us of a statement Abū Bakr al-Mālikī said concerning Imām Asad ibn al-Furāt [d. 213 AH], the student of Imām Mālik in Madīnah, and the student of Imām Muhammad in ‘Irāq:
It is well-known that Asad ibn al-Furāt (may Allah be pleased with him) would adhere to those opinions of the people of Madīnah and the people of ‘Irāq that he deemed correct. He had the qualifications to do so, due to his depth of knowledge, relentless search for knowledge and preponderance of ‘Ulamā’ and Hadīth scholars he met.
Consider the three conditions that qualified him for that position:
  1. Depth of knowledge
  2. Relentless search for knowledge
  3. Preponderance of ‘Ulamā’ and Hadīth scholars he met
If it were not for the necessity of reflecting (ta’ammul), composure (ta’nnī) and prerequisites, it would be permissible for any person to ascribe every ruling to a particular Imām in which he is content with the authenticity of the Hadīth that supports it. Thereafter, a second person can ascribe the same opinion to a different Imām. Now, a third person, who is content with the authenticity of a contrary Hadīth in this very issue, can ascribe this new opinion to both the first and second Imāms, and so ad infinitum, causing incoherence in knowledge and chaos in dīn under the pretext of implementing the slogan “When a Hadīth is authentic, it is my opinion.”
In that case, the matter worsen and the chaos extends to claiming consensus in an issue wherein any of us are content with the authenticity of the Hadīth that supports it! Because this statement [When a Hadīth is authentic, it is my opinion] is the mute expression of every scholar, nay every Muslim. We seek Allah’s protection.
If it is asked:
Then what was the intent of the Imāms in establishing this statement and other similar statements in the hearts of their disciples and those after them?
The answer is what the expert scholar and theoretician, Mawlānā Habīb Ahmad al-Kirānawī, mentions in the second introduction to the book, I‘lā’ al-Sunan:
The reality of these statements is to express the fact that the evidence in reality is the statement of the Messenger of Allah and not my statement. Therefore, do not regard my statement as an independent proof. I absolve myself from whatever I say contrary to the Messenger of Allāh (peace and blessings be upon him). This reality does not necessitate what this claimant has ascribed to him [al-Shāfī‘ī] i.e. ascribing every ruling to him in which the Hadīth supporting it is authentic according to any claimant. Understand this well and do not be deceived by these statements…[15]
The gist of the answer to this objection from the these Imāms: Ibn ‘Abidīn, Ibn al-Salāh, Abū Shāma, al-Nawawī, al-Qarāfī and al-Subkī, is that only that person can ascribe an opinion to the madhhab of Imām al-Shāfi‘ī based on the aforementioned statement who has reached the ranks of ijtihād or is near it.
In light of the above, it is clear that we cannot practice on an opinion merely because we came across a Hadīth, be it authentic, that supports it, and thereafter claim that it is the madhhab of Imām al-Shāfī‘ī or any other Imām.
We have seen how many great early scholars practiced on the outward meaning of this statement, due to which those after them criticized them, or their application emerged incoherent; hence, it is the responsibility of the intelligent to take heed. The religion of Allah is loftier than leaving it as a toy for the jesters simply because the non-qualified claim to practice on the Sunnah.
Nevertheless, we do not reject that this statement has a practical implication, such as the places where Imām al-Shāfī‘ī has sated the authenticity of the Hadīth. Under the Hadīth of ‘A’ishah (may Allah be pleased with her) “My place is wherever you hold me back”, Hāfīż Ibn Hajar writes, “This is one of the places where Imām al-Shāfī‘ī has stated the authenticity of the Hadīth; I have gathered all such narrations in a separate book alongside an analysis of those narrations.”
Every field has its experts, so one should not exceed his limitation.
After this explanation, I say: should we not take a lesson from the condition of others [i.e. the scholars mentioned above] keeping in mind their knowledge and virtue, and halt at the statements of the Imām who Allah has made easy for us to follow from our formative stage?
 ————————————————————————————–
[1] Al-‘Irāqī, al-Ajwibah al-Mardiyyah, 68
[2] Ibn ‘Ābidīn, Radd al-Muhtār, 68:1
[3] Ibid. 258:1
[4] ‘Uyūn al-Sūd, Daf‘ al-Awhām, 69
[5] Al-Nawawī, al-Majmū‘, 104:1
[6] Al-Kawtharī, al-Maqālāt, 157. Shaykh Muhammad ‘Awwāmah brought this passage later on in the book. In order to make it easier to understand the context it was brought over here.
[7] Al-Kawtharī, Husn al-Taqādī, 63
[8] Al-Taqī al-Subkī, Ma‘nā Qawl al-Imām, 109
[9] In the entry of al-Ismā‘īlī, the author of al-Mustakhraj ‘alā al-Sahīh al-Bukhārī, in Tadhkirat al-Huffāż Hāfidh al-Dhahabī writes, “He has compiled the Musnad of ‘Umar (Allah be pleased with him), which I have read. I was amazed by this Imām’s phenomenal memory, due to which I now have conviction that the latter-day [scholars] have no hope in reaching the ranks of the predecessors.
[10] Al-Tāj al-Subkī, Tabaqāt al-Shāfi‘iyya, 138:6
[11] Ibid. 138:6
[12] Al-Taqī al-Subkī, Ma‘nā Qawl al-Imām, 127,136
[13] Al-Bukhārī, al-Jāmi‘al-Sahīh, 232:2
[14] Al-Qarafi, Sharh al-Tanqib, 450
[15] Al-Kiranawi, Introduction to I’la’ al-Sunan, 64





An answer to Dr. Zakir Naik's answer regarding Schools of thought

Composed by M. Yasin Achhodi
In a question posed to Dr. Zakir Naik regarding which school of thought a Muslim should follow, he answered in the following manipulating manner in which a layman can easily be affected with lack of knowledge. His answer will be quoted first followed by the reply.

Dr. Zakir Naik wrote:
"1. Muslims should be united
Muslims today, are divided amongst themselves. Such divisions are not endorsed by Islam. Islam believes in fostering unity amongst its followers.
The Glorious Qur’an says:
“And hold fast, altogether, by the rope Which Allah (stretches out for you), and be not divided among yourselves.” [Al-Qur’an 3:103]
Which is the rope of Allah that is being referred to in this verse? It is the Glorious Qur’an. The Glorious Qur’an is the rope of Allah which all Muslims should hold fast together. There is double emphasis in this verse. Beside saying ‘hold fast all together’ it also says, ‘be not divided’."
REPLY:
"Taqleed and following of an Imam has not broken unity. In the Haramayn, it is the Muqallideen who read together and coexist peacefully whereas the ones who are strictly against it decide to make their own gatherings, Jamaa’ah and also groups.
My question: who has broken unity? A Muqallid or a person with his own views of Deen?"


Dr. Zakir Naik wrote:
"The Qur’an further says,
“Obey Allah, and obey the Messenger” [Al-Qur’an 4:59]
All the Muslims should follow the Qur’an and authentic Ahadith and ensure that they are not divided among themselves"
REPLY:
"Why is the remaining verse of the Holy Qur’aan forgotten?
“O you who believe! Follow Allah; follow the Messenger and those of authority (Amr) amongst you.” (Surah al-Nisaa Verse 59)
Abdullah ibn Abbas (ra) says that in this verse, ‘Amr’ refers to the jurists. This explanation is narrated from Mu’aawiyah ibn Salah from Ali ibn Talhah which is a sound chain, Al-Itqaan)
The verse continues, “And if you dispute, then refer to Allah and the Messenger if you really do believe in Allah and in the last day. (Surah al-Nisaa Verse 59)
Allah’s statement subsequently “if you dispute…” proves that those of Amr are indeed jurists because He has ordered everyone else to follow them and then proceed to say that “if you dispute..” Hence Allah has ordered those of Amr to refer the disputed issue to the Book of Allah the traditions of the Prophet. The lay person would be unaware of how to refer the disputed issue to the Book of Allah and to the Sunnah and how their proofs would apply to the situations and events. Thus, it is established that the second command, is for the scholars. (Ahkaamul Qur’aan, vol 2, pg 257)
My question: Why state quarter of the verse as proof for not following scholars when the remainder of the verse denies your claim?"


Dr. Zakir Naik wrote:
"2. It is prohibited to make divisions in Islam.
The Glorious Qur’an says:
“As for those who divide Their religion and break up Into sects, you have no part in them in the least: Their affair is with Allah: He will in the end tell them the truth of all that they did.” [Al-Qur’an 6:159]
In this verse Allah (swt) says that one should disassociate oneself from those who divide their religion and break it up into sects.
But when one asks a Muslim, “who are you?” the common answer is either ‘I am a Hanafi or Shafi or Maliki or Hanbali. Some call themselves ‘Ahle-Hadith’."

REPLY:
"When a non-Muslim asks, “who are you?” the common answer is “I am a Muslim”
When a Muslim asks, “who are you?” the common answer is, “son of so n so” or “I am a Gujrati/Pakistani/Malaysian” etc. Does this mean that to be a Pakistani is being guilty of the people mentioned in this verse?
I, till today, have not heard “I am a Hanafi” or “Shaafi’ee” being the answer to “who are you?”
Furthermore, Taqleed has not created divisions. This is grave misconception. Ahlus Sunaah Wal Jamaa’ah are proud to follow the Sahaabah. The Islam of the Sahabaah was the complete Islam. They saw Nabi (s) and they saw the Qur’aan in him. The understandings of the Sahaabah is our understanding.
There were differences of opinion in the Sahaabah too. Ibn Abbas (ra) narrates that ‘Umar ibn Khattab gave a sermon at Jabiyah and said, “O people! If you want to know about the Qur’aan, go to ‘Ubaid ibn Ka’b. If you want to know about inheritance, go to Zaid ib Thaabit. If you want to about Fiqh, go to Mu’aadh ibn Jabal. If you want to know about wealth, then come to me for Allah has made me a guardian and a distributor. “ (Tabarani)
We hear it all the time, “oh you follow them, but we follow Qur’aan & Sunnah.” Those who claim to follow the Qur’aan & Sunnah as understood by themselves, please take a moment to observe the following.
Salim ibn Abdullah narrates that Abdullah ibn ‘Umar was asked about a person who owed another person some money and had to pay the load at a fixed time. The creditor then agrees to forgive a portion of the load if the debtor pays before the deadline. Ibn ‘Umar disliked this agreement and forbade it. (Muwatta Imam Malik)
There is no explicit Hadith of the Prophet which has been offered as proof nor was any proof sought from Ibn ‘Umar (ra). It is evident that this ruling was a personal judgement of Ibn ‘Umar.
Abdur Rahmaan narrated that he asked Ibn Sireen about entering public baths. Ibn Sireen said that ‘Umar used to dislike the idea. (Mataalibul ‘Aaliyah by Hafiz Ibn Hajar)
Ibn Sireen, who was one of the most learned followers of the Companions, did not mention any proof except to say that ‘Umar used to dislike the idea.
This is despite the fact that there are several Ahadeeth regarding the issue of public baths.
There are plenty more examples available. Now my question: Who is causing the division? The one who follows a jurist like the Sahaabah and those who followed them did? Or the ones who are breaking all bonds and ties from the people of authority, the people of knowledge and telling everyone not to follow those of authority and to follow only Qur’aan & Sunnah no matter how you understand it? Who is this verse more likely to refer to?"

Dr. Zakir Naik wrote:
"3. Four Schools of Thoughts
The Islamic world has produced several learned Islamic scholars (Imams), but out of these, four became more famous and their teachings spread in different parts of the world.
It is a misconception that a Muslim should follow any one of these four schools of thoughts i.e. Hanafi, Shafi, Hanbali or Maliki. There is no proof whatsoever in the Qur’an or any authentic Hadith that a Muslim should only follow one of these four Imams."
REPLY:
"‘Umar Ibn Khattab (ra)’s sermon at Jabiyah in which mentioned who to go to for which subjects is also not mentioned in the Qur’aan. It is very easy to say “it is a misconception,” maybe if the conception was mentioned, the misconception would not remain. To avoid the possibility of contradictions amongst the scholars of differing Ijtihad over a primary source, the laity were encouraged to follow only one Madhhab and Mujtahideen instead of referring to several. This idea gained domination during the 3rd and 4th century AH. One of the most important reasons for this was that a person can not take the judgement which suits his desires best. According to some jurists for example, Talaaq (divorce) takes place whereas according to some, it doesn’t. Most people will no doubt follow the jurist which suits their desire best.
Following desires to the extent that they believe Halaal to be Haraam and Haraam to Halaal is disastrous. Disobedience of this nature is fatal and makes religion and law mere shame. For this reason, the acceptance of following only one Madhhab has successfully continued for around 11 centuries in the majority of Muslims. Furthermore to proudly state its acceptance in the eyes of Allah that it is the scholars of Ahlus Sunnah Wal Jamaa’ah, those who do follow the Qur’aan, those who do follow the Sunnah, those who do follow the two as understood by the Sahaabah and those who do follow an Imam are those who Allah has accepted to lead prayers in the Haramayn Shareefayn.
My question: Is Qur’aan & Sunnah your only source of making judgements? If yes, why did the Sahaabah not ask for proof from Qur’aan & Sunnah? Why did some Sahaabah refer to other Sahaabah for rulings? Were they not learned enough?"


Dr. Zakir Naik wrote:
"4. Respect all the Great Scholars of Islam.
We must respect all the great scholars of Islam, including the four Imaams, Imam Abu Hanifa, Imam Shafi, Imam Hanbal and Imam Malik (may Allah be pleased with them all). They were great scholars and may Allah reward them for their research and hard work. One can have no objection if someone agrees with the view and research of any one or more from these four great scholars of Islam."
REPLY:
"Again, please refer to following rulings which suit the desires under number 3. I see no other reason why one would object to their ruling."
Dr. Zakir Naik wrote:

"5. All Four Imam said follow the Qur’an and Sunnah.
All the four great Imams said that if any of their Fatwas or teachings contradict Allah’s word, i.e. the Qur’an, or the sayings of the Prophet (pbuh) i.e. authentic Hadith, then that particulars Fatwa of theirs should be rejected, and the Sunnah of the Prophet should be followed.
To give you an example in this context – Imam shafi said that when a women touches a man who is in a state of wudhu, the wudhu of the man breaks. However, this ruling of Imam Shafi contradicts the authentic saying of the Prophet.
Narrated Aisha
The Prophet (may peace be upon him) kissed one of his wives and went out for saying prayer. He did not perform ablution. (Sunan Abu Dawood Vol. 1 Chapter No. 70 Hadith No. 179)
Thus this particular teaching of Imam Shafi contradicts the authentic saying of the Prophet. So I reject this specific ruling of Imam Shafi who himself said , “ If I say something, then compare it to the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His messenger and if it agrees to them, then accept it and that which goes against them, then reject it and throw my saying against the wall” – This is a saying of ash-Shafi’ee-rahimaullah. See Al-Majmoo’ of an-Nawawee (1/63).
Thus by rejecting this particular teaching of Imam Shafi which contradicts the authentic Hadith, I am practically a better follower of Imam Shafi than those who call themselves ‘Shafi’."
REPLY:
The response to this is; This is the opinion of Ibn 'Umar and some other Sahabah. However, when the Sahabah disagree in a matter, their statements are not a proof unless proof is brought from the Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad (s). As we stated before, Ibn 'Abbas and the reports from 'Aa'ishah contradict the opinion of Ibn 'Umar and those with their opinion. Thus, the opinion of Ibn Umar is not accepted unless supported with proof from the mouth of the beloved Messenger Muhammad (s). This topic itself is a lengthy topic in which one can not lightly accuse Imaam Shafi’ee (Rahimahullah) of going against a Hadeeth.
Furthermore, everyone learning Ahadeeth and extracting rulings from them in the light of Qur’aan is unreal and somewhat impossible. Not many if not all have the ability to do so. Therefore, to say one can follow a different ruling if they find a Hadeeth which contradicts it, is absurd for a common person.
Bearing in mind, does a common person have enough knowledge to know that there is no other stronger Hadeeth that this ruling? Does the layman have enough knowledge to understand why Imam Shafi’ee uses that Hadeeth as Hujjah and Imam Abu Hanifah uses this? 


Dr. Zakir Naik wrote:
"Similarly in practice, I claim to be a better follower of Imam Abu Hanifa than those who call themselves ‘Hanafi’. I claim to be a better follower of Imam Hanbal than those who call themselves ‘Hanbali’. I claim to be a better follower of Imam Malik than those who call themselves ‘Maliki”. If being a ‘Ahle-Hadith’ means following Qur’an and authentic Hadith then I claim to be a better follower of the Qur’an and authentic Hadith than those who call themselves ‘ Ahle-Hadith’. All these are mere labels (Hanafi, Shafi, Hanbali, Maliki, Ahle-Hadith) that are not endorsed by the Qur’an or the Sahih Ahadith.
The only label or title given by the Qur’an and the Sahih Ahadith is MUSLIM."
REPLY:
"Very easy to fall for this last statement, yet the solution and answer is even easier. A Muslim is a person who believes in one Allah and believes in Muhammad (s) as the final Messenger. A Hanafi, Shafi’ee, Hanbali, Maliki does not come contradictory to MUSLIM. As the meaning of Hanafi is not the opposite of what makes a person MUSLIM. Being a Hanafi does not take the Shahaadah away from a MUSLIM. In fact, the following (Number 6) helps."

Dr. Zakir Naik wrote:
"6. All the Groups have sub divisions
I personally have no objection if someone calls himself Hanafi, Shafi, Hanbali, Maliki or Ahle Hadith. People give different labels to themselves to identify which set of teachings they prefer to follow and to disassociate themselves from those people who follow wrong practices. From history we come to know that all the labels given to different groups, at a later stage the people from that group themselves did not follow their teachings and made new sub-groups. Therefore in all the groups you find a sub-division.
But as far as giving a label to identify what a person practices in Islam is concerned, there can not be better label than what Allah (swt) has given i.e. a Muslim."
REPLY:
"We have never labelled ourselves as an entirety ‘Hanafi’ or ‘Shafi’ee’. But to use it to deny Taqleed is using false logic and inaccurate claims. Every title or label has its position. If a person says, “I am a MAN”, does this change the fact that he is a Human? The Qur’aan and Hadeeth says we are ‘son of Adam’, does this mean we can’t say we are son of our blood father? When one can claim that this logic is out of context, then how can saying, ‘I am a Hanafi’ hence not MUSLIM as the Qur’aan labels us be true logic?"

Dr. Zakir Naik wrote:
"7. Our Prophet was a Muslim
“Who was our beloved Prophet (pbuh)? Was he a Hanafi or a Shafi, or a Hanbali or a Maliki ?” No! He was a Muslim, like all the other Prophets and Messengers of Allah before him."
REPLY:
"This is enough to show the desperateness of trying to deny Taqleed. Was Imam Abu Hanifah , Imam Shafi’ee, Imam Ahmad or Imam Malik before our Prophet (s)? A Muslim is a person of Islam. Unless Hanafi, Shafi’ee, Hanbali or Maliki is a religion, one can not use the above to clarify anything which is trying to be proven. The entire context is off track."


Dr. Zakir Naik wrote:
"It is mentioned in chapter 3 verse 52 of Al-Qur’an that Jesus (pbuh) was a Muslim.
Further , in chapter 3 verse 67, Al-Qur’an says that Ibrahim (pbuh) was not a Jew or a Christian but was a Muslim."
REPLY:
"To clarify my above point, I use this quote of Doctor Zakir Naik. Here he has put a MUSLIM in oppose to Christian or Jew. Christianity and Judaism are religions, so this can be used to prove Jesus was a Muslim. Hanafi or Shafi’ee etc is not a religion, it is mere ignorance to use this out of such context.
InshaAllah I will not have to use any more Qur’aan, Hadeeth, Logic or doctor Zakirs own statements to answer the following as InshaAllah one will be able to understand his lack of awareness by reading his following proofs."


Dr. Zakir Naik wrote:
"8. Qur’an says call yourselves Muslims
There is no Qur’anic verse or any authentic Hadith that says you should call yourselves Hanafi, Shafi, Hanbali, Maliki or Ahle Hadith.
If anyone poses a Muslim the question who are you, he should say “I am a Muslim, not a Hanafi or a Shafi or a Ahle-Hadith”.
In Surah Fussilat chapter 41 verse 33 Allah (swt) says: “Who is better in speech than one who calls (men) to Allah, works righteousness, and says, ‘I am of those Who bow in Islam (Muslim)?’ “[Al-Qur’an 41:33]
The Qur’an instructs, “Say: I am of those who bow in Islam”. In other words, say, “I am a Muslim”.
The Prophet (pbuh) dictated letters to non-Muslim kings and rulers inviting them to accept Islam. In these letters he mentioned the verse of the Qur’an from Surah Al Imran chapter 3 verse 64:
Say ye: “Bear witness that we (at least) are Muslims (submitting to Allah’s Will).”[Al-Qur’an 3:64]
9. Lip Service Muslims
Allah knew that even in the Muslim Ummah there will be many people who claim to be Muslims (i.e. claim to submit their will to Allah) but practically will not follow Allah’s commands.
Allah refers to such people in the Qur’an as lip service Believers (Al Qur’an 5:41). Thus we can conclude that those who claim to be Muslims but do not follow Qur’an and Sunnah are Lip-Service Muslims. Those who follow the Qur’an and authentic Hadith should not change their label, and stick to the best label given by Allah (swt) i.e. Muslim and which the Prophet also called himself."
REPLY:
"This verse is being used once again against the Muqallideen. This time, the Muqallideen are said to not be following the Qur’aan & Sunnah.
Imagine giving a person the Qur’aan, the Ahadeeth and then saying, live your life according to these rulings. Will that person be able to understand what the Qur’aan means by Quroo’ in the verse where Allah says, “And those women who are divorced should wait for three Quroo’”?
And what type of (Mukhaabarah) will he know or understand in the Hadeeth where Nabi (s) said, “Whoever does not stop the practice of Mukhaabarah should hear the proclamation of war (against him).”? (Mukhaabarah is a certain type of farming. There were several forms of Mukhaabarah practiced) The Hadeeth is fairly general, how would a lay person distinguish between the permitted ones and the forbidden one?
Then there’s one Hadeeth which says, “Whoever has an Imaam, then the Imaam’s recitation is his recitation.” On the other hand, another Hadeeth says, “There is no Salaah for he who does not recite the Faatihah.” How would a common person which Qur’aan and Hadeeth be able to choose which Hadeeth to follow, or what is the middle route, or does it refer to something else, or was the Hadeeth for a particular event only? Obviously one is will have to turn to a learned jurist who has mastered himself in these issues and whom Allah (swt) has blessed unrecognizable wisdom. So when the person asks this jurist/imam, is he now following the Imaam or Qur’aan and Sunnah?
Obviously he is following the Qur’aan and Sunnah as passed on by these scholars as they compiled rulings. And it is common sense that if a person tries to follow all the Madhaahib then he will lead to following the rulings which suit him best.
My question is, who is following a more reliable and sound meaning of the Qur’aan and Sunnah and who is taking literal and incomplete perceptions of the Qur’aan and Sunnah. The obvious answer would be the one who chooses to follow a Madhhab is safer from making his own meaning of Deen whereas following a Madhhab is actually following a sound understanding of Qur’aan and Hadeeth."

Dr. Zakir Naik wrote:
"10. The Prophet had said that there would be 73 sects.
Some may argue by quoting the Hadith of our beloved Prophet, from Sunan Abu Dawood Hadith No. 4579. In this Hadith the Prophet (pbuh) is reported to have said, “My community will split up into seventy-three sects.”
This hadith reports that the prophet predicted the emergence of seventy-three sects. He did not say that Muslims should be active in dividing themselves into sects. The Glorious Qur’an commands us not to create sects. Those who follow the teachings of the Qur’an and Sahih Hadith, and do not create sects are the people who are on the true path.
According to Tirmidhi Hadith No. 171, the prophet (pbuh) is reported to have said, “My Ummah will be fragmented into seventy three sects, and all of them will be in Hell fire except one sect.” The companions asked Allah’s messenger which group that would be. Where upon he replied, “It is the one to which I and my companions belong”."
REPLY:
"The answer of Nabi (s) is so strong and true in its wisdom. He did not say, “It is the one who follows Qur’aan & Sunnah.” He said, “It is the one to which I and my companions belong.” Note, the Sahaabah are mentioned. The Sahaabah passed on the true Islam to the Tabi’een. When the Tabi’een followed the Islam of the Sahaabah, they are included in that sect. Now will you say that the Tabi’een aren’t because they followed the Sahaabah and not the Qur’aan and Sunnah? The Tabi’een turned to certain Sahaabah and similarly the Tab’ Tabi’een turned to certain Tabi’een for certain issues. Why did they not look directly into Qur’aan and Hadeeth?
A Madhhab is a compilation of rulings, an understanding of Fiqh related issues. The Islaam we follow is the Islaam of the Sahaabah. Do we have a better understanding of Hadeeth and Qur’aan than these great scholars? If one does, they can feel free to be a Mujtahid and have their own Fiqh. As for those who follow a Madhhab, they are following the Islaam of the Sahaabah. "


Dr. Zakir Naik wrote:
"The Glorious Qur’an mentions in several verses, “Obey Allah and obey His Messenger”. A true Muslim should only follow the Glorious Qur’an and the Sahih Hadith. He can agree with the views of any scholar as long as they conform to the teachings of the Qur’an and Sahih Hadith. If such views go against the Word of Allah, or the Sunnah of His Prophet, then they carry no weight, regardless of how learned the scholar might be. A true Muslim will not follow any ruling or teaching of any great scholar of Islam if that particular ruling or teaching contradicts the Qur’an and Saheeh Hadith.
Thus, the only school of thought that a Muslim should follow, is that of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). The only Madhab that a Muslim should follow, is the Madhab of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). And Allah knows the Best."
REPLY:
"By saying the only school of thought you should follow is Prophet Muhammad, you have clearly showed that you do not understand the meaning of “school of thought.” A school of thought is a doctrine, The point of view held by a particular group (dictionary) a set of ideas or opinions which a group of people share about a matter (Cambridge).
The Islaam of Nabi (s) was not a ‘point of view.’ It was the true Islaam in its state. When the narrations varied after the Sahaabah, that is when the need for school of thoughts emerged. That is when a strong opinion was required. A common person can not conclude the Deen with his own understandings."
[END OF ARTICLE AND ANSWERS]



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