Sunday, 6 September 2015

RECITATION AND SINGING WITH OR WITHOUT MUSIC IN THE LIGHT OF QURAN AND AHADITH

الالقاء والغناء مع أو بدون موسيقى
في ضوء القرآن الكريم وأحاديث
 
RECITATION AND SINGING
WITH OR WITHOUT MUSIC IN THE LIGHT OF
QURAN AND AHADITH
 
  
If someone tries to sum up the change in Arabs in the hands of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), he will conclude that the Prophet(صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) cleansed their hearts and changed their mindset and made them good Muslims.
From their past traditions, what was allowed to be continued by Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)?
During Prophet’s (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) time, there were only two musical instruments, flute and tambourine and both these instruments were permitted.
Now a days many new musical instruments have been made. If someone uses them in singing, why can’t these be allowed?
All Ahadith relating to prevention of Singing (Gina) have been proved to be ‘weak Ahadith’ by all Imams of Fiqh.


At the time of the advent of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)people who lived in Hijaz were mostly descendants of the followers of Prophet Ibrahim علیھ السلا م ) and Hazrat Ismail علیھ السلا م ).
The historians say that the period between Ibrahim علیھ السلا م ) and Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) was over 2000 years. During this period, people  gradually deviated from the teachings of Prophet Ibrahim علیھ السلا م ) and though they believed in one God, they started worshiping idols of all kinds. Many of these idols were brought to Makka Al-Mukarrama from far off places where Arabs used to go for merchandise.
Some  Arabs were also the followers of other prophets; like Hazrat Moosa علیھ السلا م ) and Hazrat Isa علیھ السلا م ) who were known as Jews and Christians respectively. In Islamic history, this period is known as ‘the days of illiteracy' (Ayyam-e-Jahiliyyah).
What changes took place after the advent of Prophet Mohammad
(صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)?

Prophet Mohammad 
(صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) brought the Arabs back to Islam; introduced worship of Allah (سبحانہ و تعا لی) and showed them how to worship Him. Certain practices of Arabs, like killing of girl child, wine drinking, usury, etc., were forbidden. Few other things were not banned, but regularized as per Islamic laws. Like unlimited polygamy was stopped and people were allowed to marry a maximum of 4 women with certain conditions. Improvement on humanistic behavior was introduced which helped them to become sincere and good human beings.

If anyone tries to sum up the change in Arabs in the hands of Prophet Mohammad 
(صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), he will conclude that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) cleansed their hearts and changed their mindset and made them good Muslims.

From their past traditions, what was allowed to be continued by Prophet Mohammad 
(صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)?

The day to day lives of Arabs mostly remained unchanged with the exclusion of certain areas where Islamic reforms were introduced. Their living, their eating habits, their clothing, their cultural traditions, their practice of doing business, and many more things continued, rather  Islamic rules further improved their living conditions.
For instances they were not required to change their names. They were allowed to continue with their wives and children. They were allowed to live in their own houses and encouraged to continue their businesses/agriculture as usual, except that usury was prohibited.
There were hundreds of tribes of Arabs living in Arabian Peninsula and Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) did not force them to change anything except certain areas where Islamic reforms were introduced.

Arab tribes had different accent in their colloquial Arabic. They were allowed to recite Quran in their own accent. But these recitals did not have any bearing on the understanding of the Quran. These recitals were later known as ‘seven recitals’ and ten recitals. Prophet Mohammad 
(صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) did not force them to use the accent of Quraish in reading Quran. In all these recitals, Hazrat Hafs (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) recital was very close to the accent of Quraish.

Singing as a show happiness was wide spread in Prophet’s 
(صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) time. Certain cultural traditional dances remained unchanged. In a nutshell, Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) did not touch the cultural life of Arabs except in certain areas where Islamic values were introduced.
Islam is a versatile and happening religion. It is meant for the people of the whole world until the day of Resurrection. The cultural values of people of the whole world can be accommodated within the parameters of Islam. Islam has taught people certain basic requirements in their lives. These have to be as per the basic laws of Islam as taught by Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). Islam does not impose anything against the basic nature of human beings. It reforms their nature and facilitates them to become good human beings.

It is in Quran – ‘O’ people of belief, do not consider forbidden those good things that Allah (سبحانہ و تعا لی) has allowed. (Al-Maa’ida – 87).

It is in Hadith – It is narrated by Abu Huraira (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) that the Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said, ‘one who does not recite Quran with rich (vocal) recitation, is not among us. (Bukhari and Muslim).

It is in Hadith - It is narrated by Abu Huraira (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) that the Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said Allah (سبحانہ و تعا لی) does not listen to anything the way He listens to the loud vocal recital of Quran by the melodious voice of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)(Bukhari and Muslim).

WRITING OF POETRY AND ITS RECITATION WAS ALLOWED BY PROPHET MOHAMMAD (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). 

It is in Hadith - 
It is narrated by  Buraida 
(رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) that I heard Prophet  (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) saying, some (couplet) is convincing speech, some are ignorant talk, and some couplet is wisdom and some are narrow mindedness’ (Abu Dawood).


WRITING OF NA'AT (EULOGY OF PROPHET MOHAMMAD - 
صلى الله عليه و آله وسلمAND ITS RECITATION WAS VERY MUCH LIKED BY THE PROPHET (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).

It is in Hadith - Ummul Momineen Aisha 
(رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) narrated that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) used to keep a Pulpit ( stand ) at the Prophet’s (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) mosque for Hassaan Bin Saabith(رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), and Hazrat Hassaan (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) used to climb over it and used to express pride for, and defend Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) (meaning he used to recite Na’at) and the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) used to say that Allah (سبحانہ و تعا لی) supports Hassaan (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) from Hazrat Jibreel علیھ السلا م ) as long as he expresses pride for and defends the Apostel (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم). (Bukhari).
It is in Hadith -  Narrated Hassan bin Thabit Al-Ansari: I asked Abu Huraira "By Allah! Tell me the truth whether you heard the Prophet sayig O Hassan! Reply o behalf of Allah's Apostle.  O Allah! Help him with the Holy Spirit"  Abu Huraira said, "Yes".  (Bukhari, Vol 1, Book 8, # 444).  
It is in Hadith -  'Amr b Sharid reported his father as saying: One day when I rode behind Allah's Messenger, he said (to me):  Do you remember any Poetry of Umayya b. Abu Salt.  I said: Yes.  He said: Then go on.  I recited a couplet, and he said: Go on.  Then I again recited a couplet and he said : Go on.  I recited one hundred couplets (of his Poetry).  This Hadith has been reported on the authority of Sharid through another chain of transmitters but with a slight variation of wording. (Muslim. Book 28, # 5602)
It is in Hadith - Narrated Abdullah bin Dinar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ): My father said, I heard Ibn ‘Umar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) reciting the poetic verses of Abu Talib(رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) :

And a white (person) (i.e. the Prophet -
 صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) who is requested to pray for rain and who takes care of the orphans and is the guardian of widows. 

Salim’s father (Ibn Umar - 
رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) said, “The following poetic verse occurred to my mind while I was looking at the face of the Prophet صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) while he was praying for rain.

He did not get down till the rain water flowed profusely from every roof, water passage:

And a white (person) ( Prophet Mohammad - 
 صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم ) who is requested to pray for rain and who takes care of the orphans and is the guardian of widows.... And these were the words of Abu Talib(رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ).” (Bukhari, Book 2, Volume 17, Hadith 122)

PLAYING OF TAMBOURINE (DAF) AND FLUTE, AND DANCING IN JOY WAS ALLOWED AND LIKED BY PROPHET (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم).  

It is in Hadith –  
Ummul Momineen Aisha 
(رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) has narrated that the Apostel (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said that  ‘make announcement for the marriage ceremony and perform the ceremony at Mosque and play on the tambourine (Daf). (Tirmizi).

It is in Hadith –
 It is narrated by Mohammad Bin Haatib 
(رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), and he narrates it from Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم)who said that the difference between lawful (halaal) and unlawful (Haraam) is that in marriages singing and drum beating is performed.(Ahmad, Tirmizi, Nasa’ee and Ibnu Maaja).

It is in Hadith – 
Ummul Momineen Aisha (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) narrates that when one Ansari’s bride was sent to her groom’s house in her bridal attire, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said that ‘Don’t you have some play and fun because the Ansar’s like fun’. (Bukhari).

It is in Hadith – 
It is narrated by 
Ummul Momineen Aisha (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا), she said ‘I swear to Allah (سبحانہ و تعا لی), I saw the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), and the Habashis (a tribe of Madina) are playing (dancing) with spears and the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) hides me with his coverlet so that I could see their play from between his ear and shoulder. Then he stays for me until I myself will return back’.(Bukhari and Muslim).

It is in Hadith –
 It is narrated by Abu Moosa 
(رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) that the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) said, O’Moosa (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), you have been given a flute of the People of Dawood علیھ السلا م ). (Tirmizi).

It is in Hadith – 
Ummul Momineen Aisha (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) narrates that Abu Bakr (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) came to our home when two girls were clapping and playing on the tambourine (Daf) during ‘Mana’, and in another narration (the girls were) singing such couplets which were recited by Ansars during the war of Ba’as. When Abu Bakr (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) chided these girls, the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) took out the (bed) sheet from his face and said O’Abu Bakr (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), leave them, as this is festival time. And in one narration (it is said) O’ Abu Bakr (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), every nation has festival and this is our festival.’(Bukhari and Muslim).

During Prophet’s 
(صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) time, there were only two musical instruments, flute and tambourine and both these instruments were permitted.
Now a days many new musical instruments have been made. If someone uses them in rightful singing, why can’t these be allowed?However, if  someone is  singing something which explains physical beauty of a woman or describes polytheism and infidelity or idolatory, its recital and singing is senseless, waste of time and will be considered as sin. Similarly, singing and dancing of young men and women together on stages cannot be allowed.

Every aspect of human activity has positive and negative features. Islam disallowed negative features and allowed the positive side.
Fornication and infidelity is not allowed. But you can have legal marital bliss.
Singing, music and dancing which leads people towards sin cannot be allowed. But if someone recites the eulogy of Prophet Mohammad 
(صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم), meaning recites Na'at, with musical instruments, how can it be disallowed?

If someone sings in praise of his parents because they have supported him in his life, how can we disallow it?

If someone sings in praise of his teacher for his services, how can it be disallowed?

If someone recites a poetry in praise of his Shaikh who taught him Arabic, Quran and Hadith, how can this be disallowed?

If someone sings, dances and plays musical instruments in times of joys, festivals, marriages, how can it be disallowed?

If someone arranges ‘Sama’ gatherings and recital of poetry in praise of Prophet Mohammad 
(صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and Sahabah (رضئ اللھ تعالی عنہم اجمعین ) and legendary Shaikhs of Ihsan and uses musical instruments, this will be treated as Sunnah because Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) has allowed and liked it.
Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Saffarini al-Hanbali (d. 1188) relates in his Ghidha' al-albab li-sharh manzumat al-adab from Ibrahim ibn `Abd Allah al-Qalanasi that Imam Ahmad said about the Sufis: "I don't know people better than them." Someone said to him: "They listen to music and they reach states of ecstasy (Meaning they do Wajd)." He said: "Do you prevent them from enjoying an hour with Allah (سبحانہ و تعا لی)?"
If people recite Salam and Durood in chorus with music on Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) it will be treated as Sunnah because Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and Allah (سبحانہ و تعا لی)both like it.
 

 
The tradition of hearing of vocal music is also proved from companions of Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and their first and second generation followers. Read the following 15 Ahadith.
(1) It is narrated by Ibne Abdul Bar (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) that Omer (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) heard vocal music.
(2) It is narrated by Madarvi and Rafa’ee that Osman (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) heard vocal music.
(3) It is narrated by Ibn Abi Shaibah that Abdul Rahman Bin Auf(رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) heard vocal music.
(4) It is narrated by Baihaqi, Ibn Maaja, Sa’eed Bin Mansour and Wahidi that Abu Obaidah bin Jarrah (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)heard music.
(5) It is narrated by Baihaqi that  Bilal (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ), Abd bin Arqam (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) and Osama Bin Zaid (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) heard it.
(6) It is narrated by Ibn Zaher that  Hamza (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)heard it.
(7) It is narrated by Abu Nayeem that Barra bin Malik (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) heard it.
(8) It is narrated by Ibn Abdul Bar that Abdullah Bin Jaber(رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) heard it.
(9) It is narrated by Abu Talib Makki that Abdullah Bin Zubair (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) heart it.
(10) It is narrated by Abu Tafra Asbahani that Hassaan Bin Saabith (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) heard it.
(11) It is narrated by Zubain bin Akkar that Abdullah bin Omer (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) heard it.
(12) It is narrated by Ibn Qutbla that Qurazta bin Ka’ab(رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) heard it.
(13) It is narrated by Bukhari that Ummul Momineen Aisha(رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہا) heard it.
(14) It is narrated by Abu Talib Makki that Mugaira bin Sha’aba (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) heard it.
(15) It is narrated by Madravi that Umroo bin Aass (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ) heard it.

The listeners of Audition (singing/recital with music) are numerous in Prophet’s 
(صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) time and later among his companions and their second generation ta’aba’een (known as Salaf).

All 4 Imams of Fiqh and Ibn Ainia and Sha’afais have supported this school of thought.


All Hadiths relating to prevention of Singing (Gina) have been proved to be ‘weak hadiths’ by all Imams of fiqh.


Salafis and their like minded groups  always mention the following Hadith in which it is mentioned that ‘wine, fornication, silky wear and singing are not allowed’.
Narrated Abu 'Aamir or Abu Malik Al-Ash'ari that he heard the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) saying: "From among my followers there will be some people who will consider illegal sexual intercourse, the wearing of silk, the drinking of alcoholic drinks, and the use of musical instruments as lawful.  And (from them), there will be some who will stay near the side of a mountain, and in the evening their shepherd will come to them with their sheep and ask them for something, but they will say to him: 'Return to us tomorrow.' Allah (سبحانہ و تعا لی) will destroy them during the night and will let the mountains fall on them, and He will transform the rest of them into monkeys and pigs and they will remain so till the day of Judgment. " [Bukhari Vol.7 Hadith No.5590]
It is obvious from the above Hadith that the singing will be judged as per the assembly of people and what they are singing. The group of the people mentioned in the above Hadith will be alcoholic drunkard, will be doing zina and will use Music as sin.  They will not be charitable people as well.  Definitely, whoever is using musical instruments for the purpose of sin, will be punished.  
However, how can someone impose this Hadith on the recitation of Na’at of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) which was liked by him very much?
Salafis have the habit of imposing Quranic verses and Ahadith meant for disbelievers, sinners on  good Muslims in order to misrepresent Islam on the gullible people.  Innocent people get carried away by their utterances and get mislead. They do not realize that by their actions, they may get some worldly benefits or may be leadership of the community, but what will happen in Hereafter should be a matter of concern for them. 
 
In June 2010, a Fatwa (religious ruling) was issued by Shaikh Adel Al Kalbani, former Imam of the Grand Mosque of Makkah, in which he said that Islam does not forbid singing and music.  

"There is no clear-cut religious ruling that says singing and music are not permissible in Islam," Kalbani said.  
He reiterated that he found nothing in Islamic scripture that makes music haram, or forbidden. He also emphasized that he was open to discussion on the issue with any Salafi scholar of Saudi Arabia. "The problem is that there are some who do not accept debate at all," he said. He clarified that he was not endorsing all music, using two often risque Lebanese pop singers as examples. "I am talking about decent singing, which contains decent words, and supports morality," he told the online newspaper Sabq.org. He further said that "I am definitely not talking about the songs of Nancy Ajram or Haifa Wehbe or other indecent songs." However, "if Nancy Ajram sang a song with a positive message, then she would be within my fatwa."
Kalbani himself was against singing and music but he changed his mind. "I have read the fatwas of those saying singing and music were against Islam. "I strongly supported them and had a famous sermon on this but I changed my mind when I found out that prohibition of singing and music in Islam was based on weak evidences," he said.  He said in an interview with MBC that the people who do not give much attention to music,  live like animals. "Music is the sign of civilisation and progress of any society," he said.  Saudi publisher and media personality Osman Al Omair welcomed Al Kalbani's fatwa and said those who say singing and music were haram are as good as animals.
If anyone denies authentic Prophet's (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) Ahadith, he will go out of Islam as an arrow goes out of the bow.
Recitation of Salam, Sama, Eulogy of all venerable people of religion with or without Music is allowed in Islam, because the Prophet (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and Sahaba have allowed it.
To do Wajd, or stand or cry slowly or loudly in Sama gatherings on couplets of eulogy on Prophet Mohammad (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) is Sunnah.  Allah (سبحانہ و تعا لی) and His Apostle (صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) feel happy about it. All these actions are proved by the traditions of the companions of Prophet Mohammad(صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم) and their followers.
What kind of following of Salaf is this?
The Salafis and their like minded groups say that they follow the Salaf ( the companions of Prophet Mohammad – صلى الله عليه و آله وسلم and their first generation followers – ta’aba’een ), but in practice they do exactly the opposite of it.
It is in Quran – ‘O’people of belief, do not consider forbidden those good things that Allah (سبحانہ و تعا لی) has allowed. (Al-Maa’ida – 87).
 

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