Monday, 15 August 2016

Method of Salaah (Namaz): Position of Hands Issue




Method of Salaah (Namaz): Position of Hands Issue


ENGLISH VIDEO: Men Placing Hands on Chest in Salah - Shaykh Dr. Abul Hasan Hussain Ahmed | 23 MINS 19 SECS

ENGLISH VIDEO: Wa'il ibn Hujr (ra) & Hands Below Navel Hadith - Shaykh Dr. Abul Hasan Hussain Ahmed | 5 MINS 58 SECS

URDU VIDEO: Namaaz e Hanafi me Haath Bandna_Mufti Ashraf ul Qadri | 1 HOUR

ENGLISH VIDEO: 0088 ZAKIR NAIK'S FALSE CLAIM ABOUT HANDS POSITION IN SALAH(NAMAZ) #ENGLISH | Duration: 32mins 53secs

ENGLISH BOOK: Waza_a Yamain fi salah Tah tus surah | PAGES: 19
(Consists of proofs)

ENGLISH BOOK: Tying hands on chest By Aamir Ibrahiim | PAGES: 12
(consists of replies to the arguments)
                                                                     
URDU BOOK: Namaz me naaf k neeche hath rakhna By Faiz Ahmad Owaisi | PAGES 17 

URDU BOOK: Namaz me haath kaha bandhe By Muhammad Abbas Rizwi | PAGES: 136


URDU BOOK: Namaz Mai Naaf Ke Neechay Haath Bandna By Faisal Khan | PAGES: 142

ENGLISH BOOK: Contentions on the Ziyada to Wail ibn Hujrs narration By Abul Hasan | PAGES: 29

ENGLISH BOOK: Hanbali position of placing the hands below the navel By Abul Hasan | PAGES: 199




There are some who claim that placing the hands below the navel whilst performing the prescribed prayers is either of a weaker opinion than that of placing the hands upon the chest or has no evidence at all. This chapter will address this issue in the light of the Sunna and prove that this false claim has absolutely no foundation.
According to Imam Abu Hanifa, it is part of the Sunna for a man performing the ritual prayer, salat, to place his hands beneath the navel. Many Companions of the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) and their students (Tabi’un) performed their salat in this manner.
Imam at-Tirmidhi writes that it is Sunna to place one hand over the other but there are different opinions amongst the Companions and their students regarding the actual positioning of the hands [at-Tirmidhi, Watal-yamin ‘ala ash-Shimal]
Qadi Shawkani states that there existed different opinions amongst the scholars regarding the positioning of the hands during salat. The following consider it correct to place the hands beneath the navel: Imam Abu Hanifa, Sufyan ath-Thawri, Ishaq ibn Rahwia and Abu Ishaq [Nayl al-Awtar, Watal-yamin ‘ala ash-Shimal]
The aforementioned scholars were outstanding in the field of Hadith sciences and clearly knew the differences between authentic, acceptable, weak and fabricated narrations. Furthermore, if the ahadith stating that the hands should be placed beneath the navel were fabricated then why would Imam Ahmed and Yahya ibn Mu’in, the teacher of both Imam al-Bukhari and Imam Muslim, act upon these narrations?
Evidence About The Validity of Placing the Hands Below The Navel During The Prayer
Imam Ahmed ibn Hanbal writes:
” ‘Ali said that it is a Sunna to place one hand over the other and beneath the navel”
[Musnad Ahmed ibn Hanbal; also Daraqutni & Abu Dawud, Watal-yamin ‘ala ash-Shimal]
Imam Ibn Abi Shayba writes:
“Alqama reported from his father that the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) would place his right hand over his left and beneath the navel. Imam Ibrahim says that ‘Ali said it is a Sunnato place your hands beneath the navel during the salat”
[Musannaf Ibn Abi Shayba, ash-Shimal’ala al-Yamin]
Ibn Hazm writes that the hands should be placed beneath the navel and Anas reported that there are three things which are Sunna:
1. Not to delay the breaking of the fast [during Ramadan]
2. To end the fast aftet the very last minute
3. To place the hands beneath the navel during the prayer
[Ibn Hazm, Muhalla, Watal-Yamin]
The aforementioned narrations prove that it is an established Sunna to place the hands beneath the navel. These ahadith are neither weak nor fabricated as Ibn Hazm would have declared them as being such because he was in strong opposition to the Hanafi School of thought.

Proof :01
Wakii >> Musa bin Umair >> Alqamah bin Wail >> Wail bin Hujr >>said :
“ I saw Prophet(peace be upon him) placing his right hand on his left hand and tying them below his navel in Salah ”.

[ Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaiba , Kitab al Salah ,Baab :167 , Volume:03 , Page:320 , Hadith : 3959

Imam al Nimawi ,Athar al Sunan,Page:90 ]

*    Sanad(Chain) Analaysis [ Ta’deel of the Narrators ] :

1.   Waki bin al Jarrah

Grade : Thiqa Ma’moon (Higly credible) , Hafiz ,Aabid,Hujjah in Hadees(Muhaddis)

Teachers/Narrated From:
al-Jarrah bin Malih bin 'Ady, Isma'il bin Abi Khalid al-Ahmsi, Ayman bin Nabil, 'Ikrama bin 'Ammar, Hisham bin 'Urwa, Sulaiman al-A'mash, Twbh Abu Sdqh al-Ansari, Jarir bin Hazim bin Zayd, 'Abdullah bin Sa'id bin Abi Hind, Ma'ruf bin Kharbudh, 'Abdullah bin 'Awn bin Artaban, 'Abdur Rahman bin Sulaiman ibn al-Ghasil, Khalid bin Dinar Abu Khalida, Salma bin Nabayt, 'Isa bin Thman, Mus'ab bin Slym al-Asady, Ms'r bin Habib al-Jrmy Abu, Abd al-Mjyd bin Aby, Ibn Jurayj, 'Abdur Rahman bin 'Amr al-Awza'i, Imam Maalik, Usamah bin Zayd al-Lythy, Isra'il bin Yonus bin Abi Ishaq, Isma'il bin Muslim al-Bdy, al-Bakhtri bin Abi al-Bakhtri, Bdr bin 'Uthman al-Amwy, Ja'far bin Brqan, Hajb bin 'Umar, Hryth bin Abi Mtr, Hanzala bin Abi Sufyan bin 'Abdur Rahman, al-Hasan al-Basri, 'Ali bin Salah bin Salah, Zakaria bin Ishaq al-Makki, Zakaria bin Abi Za'idah, Sa'id bin 'Ubaid al-Tai'i, Sufyan bin Sa‘id Ath-Thawri, Shu'bah bin al-Hajjaj, Talha bin Yahya bin Talha, 'Abdul Hameed bin Ja'far, 'Abdur Rahman bin 'Amr al-Awza'i, 'Uthman al-Shham al-Dwy Abu, 'Uzra bin Thabit, 'Ali bin al-Mubark al-Hna'iy, 'Umar bin Dhar bin 'Abdullah al-Hamdani, 'Imran bin Hdyr, Mua'wiya bin Abi Mazrad,  Nafi' bin 'Umar al-Jumhi, Musa bin 'Ali bin Rabah, Yazid bin Ibrahim al-Tstry, Fadayl bin Ghazwan bin Jarir, Kahmas bin al-Hasan al-Tamimi, Malik bin Mghwl, Muhammad bin 'Abdur Rahman b. Abi Dh'ab, Muhammad bin 'Abdur Rahman bin Abi Layla, Muhammad bin Qays al-'Asady, Msawr al-Wraq al-Kwfy al-Sha'r, Hisham bin Abi 'Abdullah al-Dastawa'i, Hisham bin Sa'd al-Madni, Ya'la bin al-Harith bin Harb, Sa'id bin Sinan al-Barjami, Aflah bin Hameed bin Nafi', Hammad bin Salama, Hamad bin Najih al-Iskaf, Zm'h bin Salah, Sa'd bin Aws al-Bsy, Sa'id bin 'Abdul 'Aziz al-Tanuqi, Sulaiman bin al-Mughira al-Qaysy, Salah bin Abi al-Akhdr, 'Abdullah bin 'Umar bin Hafs bin 'Asim, 'Abdul 'Aziz bin Abi Ruwad, Fdyl bin Mrzwq al-Aghr al-Rqashy, Qurrah bin Khalid al-Sadusi, Mubarak bin Fadala, Musa bin 'Ubaida bin Nashayt, Nafi' bin 'Umar al-Jumhi, Hmam bin Yahya bin Dinar, Yonus bin Abi Ishaq, Musa bin Nafi', Abu Shahab al-Hanat, Muhammad bin Sulaym, Yazid bin Ziyad bin Aby, Severa

Teachers/Narrated by :
Sufyan bin Wky' bin al-Jrah, Mlyh bin Wky' bin al -Jrah, 'Ubaid bin Wky' bin al -Jrah, Muhammad bin Aban bin Wzyr, Sufyan bin Sa‘id Ath-Thawri, 'Abdur Rahman bin Mahdi, Ahmad bin Hanbal, Abu Bakr bin Abi Shayba, Zuhayr bin Harb, 'Abdullah bin al-Zubair bin 'Isa, 'Abdullah bin Muslima al-Qa'nabi, 'Abdullah bin Sa'id al-Ashaj, 'Ali bin Khashram, Masdad bin Masrhad, Muhammad bin Salam al-Baykandi, Muhammad bin Yahya bin Abi 'Umar, Nasr bin 'Ali bin Nasr bin 'Ali (young), Yahya bin Yahya bin Bukayr, Muhammad bin al-Sabah, Ibrahim bin Sa'id al-Juhari, Muhammad bin Rafa'i

Narrations in Sahihayn (Bukhari and Muslim)
In Sahih Bukhari : 43 Narrations are from Waki bin al Jarrah In Sahih Muslim : 318 Narrations are from Waki bin al Jarrah

References for his praise(Tadeel):
Imam Ibn Hibban in Kitab ul Thiqat :
Kitab ul Thiqat , Volume : 07 , Narrator Numer : 11482

Imam Bukhari in At Tareekh ul Kabeer :
At Tareekh ul Kabeer , Volume : 08 , Narrator Numer : 2618

Imam Ibn Hajar al Asqalani in Taqrib ut Tahdheeb :
Taqrib ut Tahdheeb , 2 : 283,284 , Narrator Numer : 7414

For Further more details on Waki bin al Jarrah see :
* Imam Dhahabi’s Siyyaru A’alam an Nubala , 9/140-168 , Narrator : 5048 and
* Mizan al Aitedal , Volume : 04 , Narrator Number : 9356
* Imam Ibn Saad ,Tabaqat ul Kubra , Volume :06 , Narrator : 3905


2. Musa bin Umayr (al Tamimi al ambary)
Grade: Thiqa (trustworthy)

Teachers/Narrated From:

Alqamah bin Wa'il bin Hujr, 'Amir al-Sha'bi, 'Ubaidullah bin Qays al-Nkh'y, al-Hakam bin 'Utayba

Students/Narrated By:

Hafs bin Ghiyath, Waki' bin al-Jarrah, 'Abdullah bin Mubarak, 'Abdullah bin Musa, al-Fadl bin Dakayn, Abu
Na'eem


References for his praise(Tadeel):
Imam Bukhari, in At Tareekh ul Kabeer:
At Tareekh ul Kabeer, Volume: 07 , Narrator Number : 1231

Imam Ibn Hajar al Asqalani in Lisan ul Mizan :
Lisan ul Mizan , Volume: 07 ,Narrator Number : 4974

In Tahdheeb ut Tahdheeb :
Tahdheeb ut Tahdheeb , Volume : 10 , Narrator Number : 643

Also in [ Taqreeb ut Tahdheeb , 2 : 227

Imam Dhahabi in Mizan al Aitedal :
Ibn Ma’een and Abu Hatim declared “Thiqa”
Mizan al Aitedal , Narrator Number : 8905

Imam Mizzi did not show any Jarh on him
Tahdhib al kamal , 7/57 , 14/33 , 16/10

3. Alqamah bin Wail bin Hujr
Grade : Thiqa,Sadooq (credible/trustworthy)

Narrations:
In Sahih Muslim : 10 Narrations are from Alqamah bin Wail


References for his praise(Tadeel):
Imam Ibn Hibban in Kitab ul Thiqat :
Kitab ul Thiqat , Volume : 05 , Narrator Numer : 4561


Imam Bukhari in At Tareekh ul Kabeer :
At Tareekh ul Kabeer , Volume : 07 , Narrator Numer : 178

Imam Ibn Hajar al Asqalani in Lisan ul Mizan :
Lisan ul Mizan , Volume :07, Narrator Numer : 4096

In Taqrib ut Tahdheeb :
Taqrib ut Tahdheeb , 1:687 ,Narrator : 4684

In Tahdheeb ut Tahdheeb , Volume :07 , Narrator : 6488


Imam Ibn Saad in Tabaqat ul Kubra :
Tabaqat ul Kubra, 6 : 312 , Narrator : 3584

Imam Dhahabi in Mizan al Aitedal :
Mizan al Aitedal ,Volume : 03, Narrator Number : 5761



4. Wail bin Hujr

He is The Companion(Sahabi) of Prophet Muhammad ( peace be upon him ) .His name is
Wail bin Hujr al Hadrami

References for his praise(Tadeel):
Ibn Hibban , Kitab al Thiqat , Volume: 03 , Narrator : 1396
Imam Ibn Hajar al Asqalani :
1. Al Isabah fi Tamyizis Sahaba ,6/596 , Narrator : 9106 and 7/448 , Narrator : 10680
2. Tahdheeb ut Tahdheeb ,Volume : 11 , Narrator : 10189
3. Taqreeb ut Tahdheeb , 1/580 , Narrator : 7393
Imam Bukhari , At Tareekh ul Kabeer , Volume : 08 ,Narrator : 11948
Imam Ibn Saad , Tabaqat ul Kubra , 2/572 – 574 .

Hence Alhamdulillah this Hadees of Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaibah is Highly Authentic with
Thiqa narrators



Proof : 02

Wakii >> Rabii >> Abi Ma’shar >> Ibrahim an Nakhii said that:
“ One should place his hands(right hand on his left hand) below the navel during
prayer ”.
[ Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaiba ,Kitab al Salah ,Baab :167 ,Volume :03 ,Page : 322 ,
Narration : 3960 ]



Proof : 03

Muhammad bin mahboob >> Hafs bin Ghiyas >> Abd al-Rahman ibn Ishaq >> Ziyad
bin Zayd >>
>>Abu Juhayfah said: Ali(r.a) said that “it is a Sunnah to place one hand on the
other in prayer below the navel”.
[ Sunan Abu Dawud, (1/260) , Hadith :756 ]

Similar Hadith from Abu Juhayfah from Ali is narrated with different chain in
Sunan Dar al Qutni:
“Abu Juhayfah said: Ali(r.a) said that “it is a Sunnah to place one hand on the other
in prayer below the navel”.
[ Sunan Dar al Qutni , (1/286) ,chapter : 29 , Hadith : 09 ]

Another Hadith from Ali (r.a) with different chain
Sunan Dar al Qutni , (1/286) , Chapter : 29 , Hadith : 10


Also in Musnad Ahmed bin Hanbal:

Abu Juhayfah narrated , Ali(r.a) said , “The Sunnah is to place right hand on left
hand below the navel ,in Salah”.

[ Musnad Ahmed bin Hanbal , Volume:01 , Page :110 , Hadith : 875 ]


* The problem with these above narrations(of Proof : 03) is that it contains Abd al-
Rahman ibn Ishaq in their chains who has been classified as weak. We ,The
Ahnaafs have not fully relied on this narration as a basis for their opinion, but since
there are many other narrations which reinforce it, it could still stand as
supplementary evidence.




Proof : 04

Narrated Abu Hurayrah(r.a): (The established way of folding hands is) to hold the
hands by the hands in prayer below the navel.
[ Sunan Abu Dawud , (1/260), Hadith: 758 ]


Proof : 05

Ali (r.a) said, “Three things are from the Akhlaaq of Prophets (1) To do Iftaar
quickly, (2) To delay the Sahoor (3) To tie hands below the navel during prayer. This
is narrated by Ibn Shaheen and Abu Muhammad in Kitab us Salaat
[ Kanz ul Ummal, (16/213) ,Hadith :44271 ]


Proof : 06

It comes from al-Athram >> Abul Walid al-Tayalisi >> Hammad ibn Salama >> Asim
al-Jahdari >> Uqba ibn Suhban >> who heard Imam Ali (ra) mention under the Tafsir
of Fasalli li-rabbika wanhar – that the right hand should be put on the left hand
beneath the navel.

[ Imam Ibn Abdul Barr, At-Tamheed , Volume No.20, Page No. 78 ,Muassas Qurtuba ]


From Classical Hadith Scholars :

1. Imam Muslim

Sahih Muslim : Chapter 15 :

THE PLACING OF THE RIGHT HAND OVER THE LEFT HAND AFTER THE FIRST
TAKBIR IN PRAYER (TAKBIR-e-TAHRIMA) BELOW THE CHEST AND ABOVE THE
NAVEL AND THEN PLACING THEM OPPOSITE THE SHOULDERS IN
PROSTRATION

* Though this doesn’t proves placing of hands below tha navel, but
This proves that,according to Imam Muslim ,the hands are to be
placed “below” the chest not “on the chest” .


2. Imam Ahmed bin Hanbal

Imam Ahmed bin Hanbal said it (placing of hands in salah) should be above navel
and this is saying of Sa'eed bin Jubayr and Imam Ahmed said: If its tied below
navel "THEN THERE IS NO HARM IN IT"
[ Imam Ibn Abdul Barr, At-Tamheed , Volume No.20, Page No. 75 ,Muassas
Qurtuba ]


3.Imam Tirmidhi
* Imam Tirmidhi says :
“ The way of the people of knowledge amongst the Companions(sahaba) of Prophet
(peacebe upon him) ,Taba’een and those after them ,is that the person should keep
his right hand on his left hand. Some of them say it should be placed above the
navel and some of them say below the navel. Both are correct according to them ”.
[ Sunan Tirmidhi] 2/32, In Hadith : 252 ]


4. Ibn Qudamah states in his Al-Mughni:

“ Then one puts his right hand upon the wrist of the left and places them below the
navel and looks to the place of his prostration.”
[ Ibn Qudamah, Al Mughni, Volume:01 , Page : 694 Dar Al Fikr,Beirut ]



From Scholars higly revered by Ghair Muqallideen

5. Ibn Qayyim al Jawziya

Ibn Qayyim writes :
'It is makrooh (disliked) to place the hands on the chest in view of the narration
that the Prophet (peace be upon him) forbade At-takfeer, which is to place the
hands on the chest.'
[ Ibn Qayyim in Bada'i al Fawa'id, Volume No. 2, Page No. 73,
Published by Maktaba al Mishqat al Islamiyya ]


6. Shams ul Haq Azeem Abadi the leading authority of Ghair
Muqallideen said:

“According to Imam Abu Hanifa, Sufyan al Thawri, Ishaq bin Rahwaih, Abu Ishaq, al
Marwazi, the hands should be folded below the navel, according to Imam Shafi (the
hadith regarding tying hands below navel) is Weak and cannot be taken as proof, In
the Shafi’I school as Imam Nawawi (Rahimuhullah) said: The vast majority of
scholars are of the opinion that Hands should be tied “BELOW THE CHEST” but
above navel, There are 2 statements narrated from Imam Ahmed bin hanbal and
according to another third he does not give preference to any of the two (i.e. one
has choice to place them below the navel of above the navel under chest), from
Imam Malik there are also 2 sayings narrated one of which is that hands should be
tied “BELOW THE CHEST” and the second is that Hands should be left free”
-- [ Al- Azeem Abadi in Awn al Ma’bud, Volume No.1, Page No. 275 ]


7. Famous Salafi scholar Muhammad Ilyas Faisal who studied in
Madina university,

He said:
“Whether hands be tied below the navel or above? Regarding this there is no
conclusive and final order from divine, as a matter of fact there are reports which
favor both sides and they have been explained by scholars who worked on Hadith,
“AS A MATTER OF FACT THE AHADITH ABOUT PLACING HANDS BELOW NAVEL
ARE COMPARATIVELY MORE SOUNDER AND AUTHENTIC THAN THE OTHERS
(WHICH TALK ABOUT TYING HANDS ON CHEST).”
[ Namaaz e Paighambri, Page No. 120 ]






It has been noticed that Wahabis tie their hands very close to the neck upon chest while praying. This practice of theirs is not based on any Sahih or Hasan hadith but rather on Weak/odd hadiths. According to all 4 schools this practice is not prescribed. Even in Shafi'i school the hands are to be tied below the chest but above navel.

In Sahih Muslim a whole chapter has been made with title:

Chapter: The Placing Of The Right Hand Over The Left Hand After The First Takbir In Prayer (takbir-i-tahrima) Below The Chest And Above The Navel And Then Placing Them Apposite The Shoulders In Prostration

Before we look at the Weak/odd narrations which Wahabis often use, let's first see what recent passed away Wahabi Muhaqiq Zubayr Ali Zai said about Ibn Khuzayma's Sahih:







Question to Zubayr Zai Mubtadi: Are all the narrations of Sahih Ibn Khuzayma authentic?

Answer: All those narrations of Sahih Ibn Khuzayma which Imam Ibn Khuzayma narrated without doing Jarh upon them "THEN THEY ARE AUTHENTIC ACCORDING TO IMAM IBN KHUZAYMA, HOWEVER THIS IS NOT NECESSARY THAT ALL SCHOLARS AGREE TO THIS AUTHENTICATION"

The general narrations of Sahih Ibn Khyzayma are Sahih or Hasan "BUT SOME NARRATIONS ACCORDING TO MY RESEARCH ARE WEAK, SIMILARLY OTHER PEOPLE HAVE ALSO DONE JARH ON SOME NARRATIONS ACCORDING TO USOOL OF HADITH AND ASMA AR-RIJAAL" whosoever's proof is strong then his saying would be preferred... [Fatawa Ilmiyyah al Ma'roof Tawzih al Ahkam by Zubayr Ali Zai Wahabi, Page # 304]

Narration # 1 (Weak hadith used by Wahabis)
Translation: Wail bin Hujr (ra) said: I prayed with the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) and he placed his right hand over his left on his chest. (Ibn Khuzaimah, # 482, Published by Maktab al Islami, Beirut, Lebanon)

This hadeeth has been reported by Muammal bin Ismaeel from Sufyan al Thawri "AN" Aasim bin Kulayb from Wail bin Hujr (ra). Before writing in detail this hadith is weak even according to Wahabi principles as it contains 2 weaknesses

1) Muammal bin Isma'il has "Mufassar Jarh" upon him and he is alone in narrating it.
2) According to Wahabis Sufyan Thawri is Mudallis who is never to be accepted when he narrates with "AN" Wahabis need to show that this hadith is narrated with Haddasna from Sufyan.

Plus It is only Muammal who reports the additional words of "ON HIS CHEST" from Sufyan al Thawri. Sufyan's other student, Abdullah bin al Waleed and other narrators who also narrate this hadeeth they do not include these words in their narrations as recorded in Imam Ahmad's Musnad. (Ahmad 18516, 18515, 18522, 18495, also see Sahih Muslim Hadith # 792 English version online)

Imam al-Bayhaqi states: One group has narrated this hadith from Sufyan ath-Thawri, however none of them have mentioned the wording "Ala Sadrihi (on the chest)" except for Muammal bin Isma'il [al-Khilafiyaat by al-Bayhaqi, Page # 37]

So now let us look at grade of Muammal bin Isma'il in light of al-Jarh wa Ta'deel.
Imam Ibn Hajr al-Asqalani (Rahimahullah) has made it clear by saying:
There is Weakness in Muammal bin Ismail's narrations from Sufyan ath-Thawri [Fath ul Bari, (9/238)]

The hadith of Ibn Khuzayma is only narrated via route of Muammal bin Ismai'l from Sufyan ath-Thawri "AN" Asim bin Kulayb, hence it is definitely weak.

al-Dhahabi states in al-Kashif regarding Muammal:

Imam Abu Hatim said: 'He is Sadooq, firm in sunnah, but "MAKES MANY MISTAKES". It was also said that "HE BURIED HIS BOOKS AND NARRATED FROM MEMORY WHERE HE ERRED" [Al-Kashif (3/168)]
Imam Bukhari said of Muammal:
al-Bukhari said: He is Munkar ul Hadith [Tahdhib ut Tahdhib (6/35)]
This is authentically proven from Imam Bukhari because even Imam Nur-ud-din al-Haythami in Majma uz Zawaid said: وضعفه البخاري Bukhari deemed him weak [Majma uz Zawaid, (4/197)]

Imam Abu Zura' said:
In his hadiths are "ABUNDANT MISTAKES" [Meezan ul A'itidal (4/228)]
Even when Ibn Hibban mentions him in Thiqaat, he says in the end:
He makes mistakes [Thiqaat (9/187)]
It also says in Tahdhib ut Tahdhib:
Imam al-Saaji said: Truthful but "MAKES MANY MISTAKES" he has errors "WHICH WOULD TAKE TOO LONG TO MENTION" Ibn Sa'd said: He is thiqa but makes abundant mistakes. Ibn Qanih said: Salih but makes mistakes, al-Daraqutni said: Thiqa but "MAKES TOO MANY MISTAKES" [Tahdhib ut Tahdhib (6/35)]

The Wahabis have used illogical reasoning on all these Jaruhaat that chains of these Juruhaat are not present. Although this is false because Ibn Hajr has himself mentioned weakness of Muamal bin Isma'eel when he narrates from Sufyan in his Fath ul Bari, plus so many other Muhaditheen as mentioned above have mentioned such Jurohaat in abundance. Hence so many muhaditheen attributing these jurohaat leaves behind no doubt that Jarh on Muamal is definitely established.

Let us now see "MUFASSAR JARH" on Muammal by Ibn Hajr al-Asqalani (Rahimahullah) who states in Taqrib ut Tahdhib:
Translation: Trutful but "HAS BAD MEMORY" [Taqreeb, (2/230)]

Zubayr Ali Zai the big authority according to Wahabis stated: Any narrator who is "Katheer al-Ghalat, Katheer al Awham, "KATHEER AL KHATA" and "SA'EE AL HIFZ" then his lone hadith is "DA'EEF" [Noor ul aynayn, Page # 63]







It is now a challenge to whole Wahabi cult to prove that Muammal bin Ismail is not alone in narrating this ziyadah (addition) in matn of Ibn Khuzayma.

Imam Nasa'i (RA) reports that Muammal bin Ismail (RA) makes many mistakes:
And Muammal bin Ismail makes "MANY MISTAKES" [Sunnan Nasa'i al-Kubra, Hadith # 9817, Published by Dar ul Fikr, Beirut, Lebanon]

Hence now Mufassar Jarh on Muammal stands established even according to Wahabi principle outlined by Zubayr Ali Zai.


Wahabis quote Yahya bin Ma'een declaring Muammal bin Ismail as thiqa, whereas they hide this quote:
I heard Yahya (Ibn Ma'een) say: "(Qabeesah) is not Hujjah in regards to (the narrations of) Sufyan (al-Thawri), so are Abu Hudhayfah, Yahya Ibn Adam and Muammal (Ibn Ismail) not Hujjah too" [Ma'rifat al-Rijal Li-Ibn Ma'een (1/113 No. 549)/Ibn Muhriz Fee Su'alatihu Li-Ibn Ma'een (1/560)]

Imam Nur-ud-din al-Haythami (rah) said:
Translation: Muammal bin Ismail is declared thiqa by Ibn Ma'een "WHEREAS MAJORITY DECLARED HIM WEAK" [Majma uz Zawaid (5/68)]

We have already seen above that even according to Yahya bin Ma'een Muammal bin Isma'il is not taken as proof in narrations of Sufyan. Hence it is confirmed that Muammal bin Ismail's addition in Ibn Khuzaymah's hadith is definitely weak.

On top of this, Wahabis themselves do not take Sufyan Thawri's narration when he narrates with "AN" whereas in this hadith Sufyan is narrating with "AN" from Asim bin Kulayb. Wahabis are double faced people, they reject same Sufyan in hadith of Abdullah bin Mas'ud in regards to tark of Raful Yadain but when it comes to tying hands on chest they rely on Mu'anan of Sufyan from same Asim bin Kulayb.

Hence this hadith is clearly weak and cannot be taken as proof. Let us now come towards 2nd weak hadith which Wahabis use to justify their Bidah practice.

Narration # 2 (Misused by Wahabis)

 


First of all the Wahabi pseudo author has done interpolation (tahreef) in wording of hadith.

Here is the hadith in accurate translation:
Translation: Abdullah >> from his father >>from Yahya bin Sa'eed >>from Sufyan >> from Simaak >> from Qabiysa ibn Hulb >> from his father: 'I saw the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) turn towards his right and left and I also saw him place this upon his chest.' Yahya (one of the narrators) described this as being the right hand upon the left above the wrist joint.
                     
So the hadith is vague and not clarifying about tying hands on chest "DURING PRAYER" at first place. Plus the interpretation by narrator at end of hadith does not justify tying hands on chest in prayer. The Istadlal of Wahabis by linking this hadith to prayer is Batil. The hadith is just mentioning turning from both right and left and "PLACING THIS ON HIS CHEST". Plus The Wahabi while giving above reference from Musnad Ahmed with Tehqeeq of Shaykh Shu'ayb Arna'oot intentionally did not quote the Tehqeeq of Shaykh Shu'ayb

He said under this hadith:
Translation: This is Sahih "OTHER THAN ITSELF, EXCEPT FOR THE SAYING PLACED THIS UPON CHEST" and this specific chain is "WEAK" due to Jahalah of Qabiysa bin halb [Musnad Ahmed, 5/226]

Hence this hadith is also Shadh with the addition of wording "UPON CHEST". Let's make it certain that additional words stating "PLACED THIS UPON CHEST" are not narrated elsewhere from other chains.

This hadith is narrated from many other routes and none of them contains the wording "PLACING THIS ON HIS CHEST"
Hafidh Nimawi (Rahimahullah) after narrating it said:
The Isnad of this is Hasan "EXCEPT FOR WORDING UPON CHEST WHICH IS NOT PRESERVED (MAHUZ)" [Athaar al Sunnan, Page # 124, Published by Shabir brothers, Lahore, Pakistan]

Hafidh Nimawi also said:
In this chapter there are also other hadiths (but) "ALL ARE WEAK" [ibid]

Narration # 3 misused by Wahabis
Abu Haazim Sahl ibn Sa'd Saadee narrates that: All those people praying (Companions) were ordered to place their right hand upon the left Zara' (all part from elbow to middle finger). Salmah ibn Deenaar mentioned that I understood this narration to be marfoo in reaching the Prophet.

As we can notice that this hadith does not prove tying hands on chest, it just says that hands were tied on Zara. Wahabis have lied that this can only happen if hands are tied on chest. However practically this can be done even when hands are tied below chest but above navel. Hence this hadith has nothing to do with tying hands on chest.

On the other hand there are many Sahih hadiths which prove that hand should be tied on other hand on wrist joint.

Even hadith # 2 which wahabis misuse proves tying on wrist joint. Let us now look at hadiths which prove tying hands on wrist joint.

It states in Sahih Muslim
Wa'il b. Hujr reported: He saw the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) raising his hands at the time of beginning the prayer and reciting takbir, and according to Hammam (the narrator), the hands were lifted opposite to ears. He (the Holy Prophet) then wrapped his hands in his cloth and placed his right hand over his left hand ...[Sahih Muslim, Hadith # 792]

There are many more hadiths which prove tying hands on wrist joint i.e. on hand not on elbow.

Narrated Abdullah ibn Mas'ud: AbuUthman an-Nahdi said: When Ibn Mas'ud prayed he placed his left hand on the right. The Prophet (PBUH) saw him and placed his right hand on his left one. [Sunnan Abi Dawood, Book 3, Hadith 754]

Hence the Wahabi logic is proven completely wrong, even the hadith about tying hand on Zara does not refer to tying hands on chest by any standards.

Now let us see what scholars say about tying hands:
Shams ul Haq Azeem Abadi the leading authority of Salafis said:
Translation: According to Imam Abu Hanifa, Sufyan al Thawri, Ishaq bin Rahwaih, Abu Ishaq, al Marwazi, the hands should be folded below the navel, according to Imam Shafi (the hadith regarding tying hands below navel) is Weak and cannot be taken as proof, In the Shafi’I school as Imam Nawawi (Rahimuhullah) said: The vast majority of scholars are of the opinion that Hands should be tied “BELOW THE CHEST” but above navel, There are 2 statements narrated from Imam Ahmed bin hanbal and according to another third he does not give preference to any of the two (i.e. one has choice to place them below the navel of above the navel under chest), from Imam Malik there are also 2 sayings narrated one of which is that hands should be tied “BELOW THE CHEST” and the second is that Hands should be left free [Al- Azeem Abadi in Awn al Ma’bud, Volume No.1, Page No. 275]

Hence accroding to all 4 schools the Wahabis are proven as Ahlul Bidah. Let us now see what the big authority of Wahabis i.e. Ibn Qayyim says in this regard:

Ibn Qayyim al Jawziya writes in his Badai’ al Fawaid: 'It is makrooh (disliked) to place the hands on the chest in view of the narration that the Prophet (sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) forbade At-takfeer, which is to place the hands on the chest.' (Ibn Qayyim in Bada'i al Fawa'id, Volume No. 2, Page No. 69, Published by Maktaba al Mishqat)

This is big daleel against Wahabis and that too from Ibn Qayyim. There are also many hadiths about tying hands below navel narrated by Sayyidna Ali (RA), Abu Hurraira (RA) and others but most of them are weak. Hence the Salaf like Imam Abu Hanifa (rah), Sufyan ath-Thawri (rah), Ishaq bin Rahwaih (rah), Ibrahim al Nakh'ai (rah) are to be followed who are proven to have tied hands below the navel.

Here are some authentic Athaar:
Translation: Ibrahim al Nakhai said that one should place his hands below the navel during prayer [Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah (1/427)]
Hafidh Nimawi (rah) says about this athar:
And it's Sanad is "HASAN" [Athaar al-Sunnan, Hadith # 332]

Another authentic Athar states:
Hajjaj bin Hassan (ra) narrates: I heard Abu al Mujlz or asked him: How should I place my hands, he answered: You should put the front of right hand on left hand's back and place them "BELOW THE NAVEL" [Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah (1/427)]

Hafidh Nimawi (rah) said:
And the Isnaad is "SAHIH" [Athaar al-Sunnan, hadith # 331]

Hence it becomes established that sounder practice more closer to hadiths is placing hands below navel. Whereas tying hands on chest is not proven. Even according to all 4 schools the practice of tying hands on chest is not established, Ibn Qayyim the big wahabi authority went to the extent of calling it Makruh and being forbidden by Prophet (Sallalaho 'alayhi wa sallam)

Famous Salafi scholar Muhammad Ilyas Faisal who studied in Madina university, he said:
“Whether hands be tied below the navel or above? Regarding this there is no conclusive and final order from divine, as a matter of fact there are reports which favor both sides and they have been explained by scholars who worked on Hadith, “AS A MATTER OF FACT THE AHADITH ABOUT PLACING HANDS BELOW NAVEL ARE COMPARATIVELY MORE SOUNDER AND AUTHENTIC THAN THE OTHERS (WHICH TALK ABOUT TYING HANDS ON CHEST).”[Namaaz e Paighambri, Page No. 120]

We would like to conclude with the wording of Imam at-Tirmidhi from his Sunnan:
He states:
Translation: This is acted upon by people of knowledge from Companions of Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him), the successors, and those after them. They held the view that man should place his "RIGHT HAND OVER THE LEFT" in prayer. Some held the view that he places them above the navel, "AND SOME HELD THE VIEW THAT HE PLACES THEM BELOW THE NAVEL, ALL OF THESE ARE ALLOWED ACCORDING TO THEM" [Sunnan Tirmidhi, Hadith # 250, Kitab us Salaat, chapter of placing the right hand on the left in Prayer]

Hence both the practices were held upon by scholars of Ahlus Sunnah i.e. either placing hands below chest but above navel or placing them "BELOW THE NAVEL" the latter according to majority and Hanafi school is the dominant position.


Chapter on Placing the Hands

below the Navel And the Manner

of Placing

[Taken from “I’la al-Sunan”]


1. Narrated from Abu Hazim from Sahl bin Sa‘d (Allah be pleased with him), he said: “The people were ordered to place one’s right hand on his left forearm in Salah.” Abu Hazim said “I do not know it [i.e. this order] but that it is traced to the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace).” Al-Bukhari narrated it.
I say: In this and similarly in what [comes] after it until the hadith of Wa’il is proof of the sunnah-status of fastening the hands in Salah, and an explanation of its description, in that the right hand is [placed] over the left hand, not vice versa. This is from that which the Imams have agreed upon in its being sunnah,¹ and they differed only over the site of placing the hands as will come.
2. Narrated from Jabir (Allah be pleased with him), he said “The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) passed by a man while he was praying, having placed his left hand on the right, so he caught hold of it and placed the right hand over the left.” Ahmad and al-Tabrani in al-Awsat narrated it; its narrators are the narrators of the Sahih. (Majma‘ al-Zawa’id)
3. Narrated from Ibn ‘Abbas (Allah be pleased with them), he said: I heard the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) say: “Verily, we, the assembly of Prophets, have been ordered to hasten our evening meal [to break the fast] and delay our predawn meal, and to place our right hands over our left hands in Salah.” Al-Tabrani narrated it in al-Kabir and its narrators are the narrators of the Sahih. (Majma‘ al-Zawa’id)
4. Narrated from Wa’il bin Hujr in a long hadith “Then he [i.e. the Prophet (peace be upon him)] placed his right hand over the back of his left palm, wrist, and wrist bone” [to the end of] the hadith. Abu Dawud narrated it and was silent about it. And Ibn Khuzaymah and Ibn Hibban narrated it in their Sahihs. And al-Tabrani narrated it with the words: “He placed his right hand over his left hand in Salah, near the wrist”. This is mentioned in al-Talkhis.
5. Narrated from Qabisah bin Hulb from his father, he said: “The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) would lead us [in Salah], and grasp his left hand with his right hand.” Al-Tirmidhi narrated it and said: “[This hadith is] hasan, and practice is upon this according to the people of knowledge, from the companions of the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) and the successors and those after them. They opined that a man places his right hand over his left hand in Salah. Some of them opined that he places them above the navel, and some of them opined that he places them below the navel; and all of this is allowed according to them.”
I say: In this [hadith] the word “grasp” is found instead of “place” and both are allowed. It says in al-Bahr al-Ra’iq (1:326): “He [i.e. the author of Kanz ad-Daqa’iq] did not discuss the manner of placing because it is not mentioned in the manifest transmission (zahir al-riwayah), and it has been differed over. The preferred [opinion] is that he grasps its wrist with the small finger and thumb, because placing is a necessary consequence of grasping, and not vice versa. This is because the narrations differ. In some of them ‘placing’ is mentioned and in some of them ‘grasping,’ so combining between the two by acting on both proofs is superior.”
It is mentioned in Radd al-Mukhtar (1:508): “And al-Shurunbulali preferred that one acts on the description of one of the two hadiths at one time and on the description of the other [hadith] at another [time], so he combines between the two narrations in reality.” I say: This is better, though the matter is flexible.
6. Yazid ibn Harun narrated to us, he said: al-Hajjaj ibn Hassan reported to us, he said: I heard Abu Mijlaz say, or I asked him, saying: “How is one to place [his hands in Salah]?” He said: “He places the inside of the palm of his right hand on the outside of the palm of his left hand and he situates them below the navel.” Ibn Abi Shaybah narrated it. (al-Jawhar al-Naqi, 1:126) ‘Allamah Ibn al-Turkumani said: “The madhhab of Abu Mijlaz is placing [the hands] below the navel. Abu ‘Umar [ibn ‘Abd al-Barr] related it from him in al-Tamhid, and it has been transmitted from him with an excellent chain.” Then he quoted this chain. Abu Dawud narrated it without chain, and he said: “Abu Mijlaz said: Below the navel.”

The Opinion of a Senior Tabi‘i is Proof According to us


I say: In this is an indication that the place of the two hands in Salah is beneath the navel, and this is supported by the statement of Ibrahim al-Nakha‘i, he said: “He places his right hand over his left hand in Salah below the navel.” And the opinion of a Tabi‘i, though it is not a proof according to the majority, it is a proof according to us, the assembly of Hanafis, according to the most correct [view], when he is a senior Tabi‘i whose fatwa became widespread in the time of the Sahabah. And Abu Mijlaz Lahiq ibn Humayd al-Basri is so, because he died in the year 100 or 101, as ‘Allamah al-‘Ayni said in his biography, the text of which is: “His name is Lahiq ibn Humayd – with dam on the ha’ – ibn Sa‘id al-Basri al-A‘war from the famous Tabi‘in. He died in Kufah in the year 100 or 101.” (‘Umdat al-Qari’, 2:889) I say: Thus, he is a senior Tabi‘i who died in the time of the Sahabah, while his opinion is also supported by marfu‘ narrations as will come.
7. Waki‘ narrated to us from Rabi‘ from Abu Ma‘shar from Ibrahim [al-Nakha‘i], he said: “One places his right hand over his left hand in Salah beneath the navel.” Ibn Abi Shaybah narrated it and its chain is hasan. This is mentioned in Athar al-Sunan (1:71), and Imam Muhammad ibn al-Hasan narrated it in his Athar with the same route (p. 25).
8. Muhammad ibn Mahbub narrated to us: Hafs ibn Ghiyath narrated to us from ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Ihsaq from Ziyad ibn Zayd from Abu Juhayfah that ‘Ali (Allah be pleased with him) said: “The sunnah is to place the hand over the hand in Salah beneath the navel.” Abu Dawud narrated it, and he said: “I heard Ahmad ibn Hanbal weaken ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Ishaq al-Kufi.” I say: No one attributed falsehood to him, but he is only weakened from the perspective of his memory, so his condition is like the condition of Ibn Abi Layla, Ibn Lahi‘ah and others. In Tahdhib al-Tahdhib (6:137): Al-Bazzar said: “His hadith is not the hadith of a hafiz.” Al-‘Ijli said: “Weak, passable in hadith, his hadiths are written.” Thus the hadith is hasan.
I say: This is a mawquf narration in the ruling of a marfu‘ narration as mentioned in Tadrib al-Rawi (p. 62): “Second, the statement of a Sahabi, ‘We were ordered such-and-such’ or, ‘We were prohibited from such-and-such’ or, ‘From the sunnah is such-and-such’ – like the statement of ‘Ali: ‘From the sunnah is to place the hand over the hand in Salah beneath the navel,’ as narrated by Abu Dawud in the transmission of Ibn Dasah and Ibn al-A‘rabi, or, ‘Bilal was ordered to make the Adhan in twos,’ and those [narrations] which resemble them – all of them are marfu‘ according to the correct [view] stated by the majority.”
The hadith is mentioned in Musnad Ahmad also (1:110). Al-Suyuti said in the introduction to Kanz al-‘Ummal: “All that is in Musnad Ahmad is acceptable, because the weak [narrations] that are in it are close to hasan.” This is found in Muntakhab Kanz al-‘Ummal (1:9). Hafiz Ibn Hajar said in his book Tajrid Zawa’id Musnad al-Bazzar: “When a hadith is in Musnad Ahmad, no other Musnads will be sourced.” Al-Haythami said in Zawa’id al-Musnad: “The Musnad of Ahmad has the most authentic sahih narrations compared to than other than it.” This is mentioned in Tadrib al-Rawi. Thus, this hadith will not fall below the level of hasan. As for the defect in the weakness of ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Ishaq, you know its elimination by the statement of al-‘Ijli that “he is passable in hadith, his hadiths are written,” while it is supported by corroborative reports as Ibn Hazm said: “We narrated from Abu Hurayrah, he said: ‘The hand is placed on the hand in Salah beneath the navel’ and [we narrated] from Anas, he said: “Three are from the traits of prophethood: hastening the breaking [of the fast] and delaying the predawn meal, and placing the right hand over the left hand in Salah beneath the navel.” This is mentioned in al-Jawhar al-Naqi (1:126).
9. Musaddad narrated to us: ‘Abd al-Wahid ibn Ziyad narrated to us from ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Ishaq al-Kufi from Sayyar Abu al-Hakam from Abu Wa’il, he said: Abu Hurayrah (Allah be pleased with him) said: “Grasping the hands over the hands in Salah is beneath the navel.” Abu Dawud narrated it (1:275) and in it is the aforementioned ‘Abd al-Rahman.
This is also mawquf in the ruling of marfu‘, and indeed al-Tahawi narrated from Muhammad ibn Sirin that he would, when he narrated from Abu Hurayrah, and it was said to him, “Is it from the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace)?” he said: “Every hadith of Abu Hurayrah is from the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace).” And its narrators are trustworthy. Thus, this proves that every hadith of Abu Hurayrah is marfu‘. Hence, it is established that the sunnah of placing the hands in Salah is to situate them below the navel, and this is the opinion of Abu Hanifah and his companions.
In Rahmat al-Ummah (p. 16): “And they have reached consensus that it is sunnah to place the right hand over the left hand in Salah, except for a narration from Malik – and that is the famous [narration from him] – that he leaves his hands dangling. Al-Awza‘i favoured giving an option [to the worshipper between the two]. And they differed over the site of placing the hands. Thus, Abu Hanifah said: ‘beneath the navel,’ and Malik and al-Shafi‘i said: ‘beneath his chest and above his navel,’ and there are two narrations from Ahmad, the most famous of them – which is the one favoured by al-Khirqi – is the same as the madhhab of Abu Hanifah.”
I say: [Al-Shawkani said:] Al-Shafi‘i (Allah have mercy on him) and his companions drew proof from the hadith transmitted by Ibn Khuzaymah in his Sahih – and he declared it sahih² – from Wa’il ibn Hujr, he said: “I prayed with the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) and he placed his right hand on his left hand on his chest.” This is mentioned in al-Nayl (2:78). Al-Shawkani said: “And this hadith does not prove [the position] they took, because they said, [the hands are] placed below the chest, as has preceded, and the hadith is clear that that [they are] placed on the chest, and likewise the hadith of Tawus that came earlier, and there is nothing in the chapter more authentic than the aforementioned hadith of Wa’il.”
I say: And this hadith of Wa’il was narrated by Ahmad in his Musnad through the route of ‘Abd Allah ibn al-Walid from Sufyan from ‘Asim ibn Kulayb from his father from Wa’il ibn Hujr, and Ahmad and al-Nasa’i through the route of Za’idah from ‘Asim from his father from Wa’il; and Abu Dawud through the route of Bishr ibn al-Mufaddal from ‘Asim from his father from Wa’il; and Ibn Majah through the route of ‘Abd Allah ibn Idris and Bishr ibn al-Mufaddal from ‘Asim from his father from Wa’il; and Ahmad through the route of ‘Abd al-Wahid and Zuhayr ibn Mu‘awiyah and Shu‘bah from ‘Asim from his father from Wa’il, all of them without the addition “on his chest”³ and Ibn al-Qayyim in I‘lam al-Muwaqqi‘in stated: “None besides Mu’ammal ibn Isma‘il said: ‘on his chest.’” This proves that he is isolated in [narrating] this [addition]. This is found in al-Ta‘liq al-Hasan (1:65).

Mu’ammal ibn Isma‘il


And Mu’ammal ibn Isma‘il is differed over. Some of them declared him trustworthy. Abu Hatim said: “Reliable, strong in [supporting] the sunnah, many errors.” Al-Bukhari said: “Rejected [munkar] in hadith.” Some of them said: “His books were buried, so he would narrate from his memory, and thus his errors became many.” Ya‘qub ibn Sufyan said: “Mu’ammal ‘Abd al-Rahman is a magnificent Sunni shaykh, I heard Sulayman ibn Harb excel in praise of him. Our teachers would recommend him, although his hadiths are not equivalent to the hadith of his peers. It is necessary for the people of knowledge to withhold [judgement] on his hadiths, because he narrates rejected [reports] from his trustworthy teachers, and this is worse, as if these rejected [reports] were from weak narrators we would have excused him.” Al-Saji said: “Reliable, many mistakes, and he has errors, the list of which is long.” Muhammad ibn Nasr al-Marwazi said: “When Mu’ammal is isolated in [narrating] a hadith, it is necessary to withhold and investigate it, because he had a bad memory and many mistakes.” This is mentioned in Tahdhib al-Tahdhib (10:381) Thus, Mu’ammal’s isolation amongst trustworthy narrators in the addition of “on his chest” will not be accepted, and the reality is so.
They also draw as proof the hadith of Qabisah ibn Hulb from his father, he said: “I saw the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) turning from his right and from his left [after Salah], and I saw him placing this on his chest (hadhihi ‘ala sadrih),” and Yahya [ibn Sa‘id al-Qattan] described the right hand over the left hand above the wrist. Imam Ahmad narrated it in his Musnad as mentioned in ‘Awn al-Ma‘bud (1:276). [A defect] in it is that the explanation of Yahya does not accord with the wording of the hadith as will come. It says in al-Ta‘liq al-Hasan: “It occurs in my heart that this is a text-corruption from the scribe and the right [wording] is ‘placing this on this’ (hadhihi ‘ala hadhihi), so his statement: ‘Yahya [ibn Sa‘id al-Qattan] described the right hand over the left hand above the wrist’ accords with it and other narrations agree with it. Perhaps this is the reason that al-Haythami did not transmit it in Majma ‘al-Zawa’id, nor al-Suyuti in Jam‘ al-Jawami ‘, nor ‘Ali al-Muttaqi in Kanz al-‘Ummal, and Allah knows best the truth.”
I say: This is supported by what Ahmad narrated (5:226) through the route of Sufyan in one instance in which is [mentioned]: “I saw the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) placing his right hand over his left hand in Salah.” And he narrated it through the route of Sharik in another instance and its wording is: “I saw him placing one of his hands over the other.” And he narrated it from him like that a second time. And al-Daraqutni narrated through the route of ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Mahdi and Waki‘ from Sufyan from Simak ibn Harb from Qabisah ibn Hulb from his father, he said: “I saw the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) placing his right hand over his left hand in Salah,” without “on his chest.” And al-Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah and Ahmad transmitted through the route of Abu al-Ahwas from Simak ibn Harb from Qabisah from his father, he said: “The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) would lead us [in Salah] and grasp his left hand with his right hand” (Al-Ta‘liq al-Hasan, 1:68) and “on his chest” is also not in this [narration]. Thus, this evidence strengthens what ‘Allamah al-Nimawi said of the likelihood of text-corruption in it. And by my life, the explanation of Yahya demands that the wording of the hadith originally was: “he placed this on this” as is not hidden to any who has taste of the language. [see footnote 4]
They also draw as evidence what Abu Dawud narrated in some copies of the Sunan (1:275) on the margins: Abu Tawbah al-Haytham, meaning Ibn Humayd, narrated to us from Thawr from Sulayman ibn Musa from Tawus, he said: “The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace) would place his right hand on his left hand and then bind them on his chest while he was in Salah.” Abu Dawud was silent over it, and its men are the men of the two Sahihs besides Sulayman who is from the men of Muslim and besides al-Haytham who is reliable but was accused of denying predestination as in al-Taqrib (p. 228). However, it is mursal which is a proof according to us but not according to the majority of the hadith-scholars and al-Shafi‘i, so their proof by it is incomplete, while it also does not agree with their position, as has passed earlier, but when this mursal combines with the aforementioned hadith of Wa’il it acquires strength by the totality.
And since mursal is a proof according to us, we must reply to it or act upon it, so we say: The hadith of ‘Ali (Allah be pleased with him) is given preference over it according to us because it states explictly that placing the two hands below the navel is from the sunnah, and the hadiths of [placing them on] the chest are all with respect to his practice, from which it cannot be established that placing [the hands] on the chest was a continuous practice of the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace), but it is only a transmission of transitory states that have no generality to them. As for the word “would” it does not necessitate continuity. Moreover, its indication towards it [i.e. continuity] is less than the word “sunnah,” so adopting the hadith of “below the navel” is more worthy, and [narrations which mention] other locations are interpreted as a demonstration of their permissibility according to us. Analogy also gives preference to placing [the hands] below the navel because this is conventional in the situation where glorification is intended.
10. Waki‘ narrated to us from Musa ibn ‘Umayr from ‘Alqamah ibn Wa’il ibn Hujr from his father (Allah be pleased with him), he said: “I saw the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace) place his right hand over his left hand in Salah below the navel.” Ibn Abi Shaybah transmitted it and its narrators are trustworthy. Shaykh Qasim ibn Qutlubugha al-Hanafi said: “This is an excellent chain.” (Sharh al-Tirimidhi by Abu al-Tayyib, Allah have mercy on him)
Shaykh Abu al-Tayyib [ibn ‘Abd al-Qadir al-Sindi al-Madani] commentator of al-Tirmidhi said: “Thus, this is a hadith with a sahih chain and text, by which evidence can be substantiated.” And in al-Ta‘liq al-Hasan: “Shaykh ‘Abid al-Sindi said in Tawali‘ al-Anwar: Its narrators are trustworthy.” I say: Its narrators are the narrators of Muslim besides Musa ibn ‘Umayr who is trustworthy from the narrators of al-Nasa’i and ‘Alqamah ibn Wa’il ibn Hujr a-Kufi is from the narrators of Muslim, trustworthy and reliable.

‘Alqamah ibn Wa’il’s Audition from his Father


As for what is in al-Taqrib (p. 147): “Except that he did not hear from his father,” Hafiz [Ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalani] retracted from this in al-Tahdhib (7:280), where he said: “He narrated from his father.” [see footnote 5] And in the narration of Muslim in Bab Sihhat al-Iqrar bi l-Qatl (2:61) [there is proof] that shows clearly his audition from his father. Muslim said: “‘Ubayd Allah ibn Mu‘adh al-‘Anbari narrated to us, he said: My father narrated to us, he said: Abu Yunus narrated to us from Simak ibn Harb from ‘Alqamah ibn Wa’il that he narrated to him that his father narrated to him, he said: ‘Verily, I sat next to the Prophet (Allah bless him and grant him peace),’” [to the end of] the hadith. Al-Tirmidhi (1:251) said in Bab al-Imam ya’muru bi l-‘Afw fi l-Dam: “And ‘Alqamah ibn Wa’il ibn Hujr heard from his father and he was older than ‘Abd al-Jabbar ibn Wa’il, and ‘Abd al-Jabbar ibn Wa’il did not hear from his father.”
Next, it is not hidden to you that some of the later scholars spoke on the establishment of the addition “below the navel” in this narration of Ibn Abi Shaybah as mentioned in ‘Awn al-Ma ‘bud (1:276) ‘Allamah Shaykh Hayat al-Sindi said: “There is doubt in establishing the addition ‘below the navel.’ Rather it is an error which stems from oversight, for I checked authentic manuscripts of al-Musannaf and I saw this hadith therein with this chain and with these [exact] words but without ‘below the navel.’ He narrated therein after this hadith the narration of al-Nakha‘i and its wording is similar to the wording of this hadith, and in its end is: ‘in Salah below the navel,’ Thus, probably the sight of the scribe deviated from one place to another, so he inserted the wording of the mawquf in the place of the marfu‘.”
I say: Were this addition to have been found only in one manuscript we would have accepted his statement “so probably the sight of the scribe deviated from one place to another,” but since it is found in multiple manuscripts, the likelihood of the sights of all the scribes deviating is not acceptable. ‘Allamah Qa’im al-Sindi said in his treatise al-Fawz al-Kiram as mentioned in al-Ta‘liq al-Hasan (1:70) that “the opinion of this addition being an error despite the positive assertion of Shaykh Qasim of its ascription to al-Musannaf and my having seen it in a manuscript and its existence in a manuscript in Shaykh Mufti ‘Abd al-Qadir’s private hadith collection, is unfair.” And he said: “And I saw it with my own eyes in an authentic manuscript on which are the signs of authentication” and he said: “This addition is in most authentic manuscripts.” Al-Nimawi said: “Fairness dictates that this addition, although authentic for its existence in most manuscripts of the Musannaf, it is contrary to the narration of the trustworthy narrators, so is not preserved.” I say: Granted, but when an anomalous narration is supported by corroborants it becomes accepted, and here it is so, as the hadiths of the text, the mawquf of them and the marfu‘ of them, support this addition, so understand!
And in al-Bahr al-Ra’iq (1:303): “According to al-Shafi‘i, its place is above the navel and below the chest, and al-Nawawi argued on his behalf with what is [narrated] in Sahih Ibn Khuzaymah from Wa’il ibn Hujr, he said: ‘I prayed with the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and grant him peace), and he placed his right hand on his left hand on his chest,’ and it is not hidden that it does not correspond to the claim,” till he said: “And it is possible to say in validating the [Hanafi] madhhab that the established [practice] from the Sunnah is placing the right hand on the left, and a hadith which describes a specific place on the body where they should be placed is not established except the aforementioned hadith of Wa’il, which along with being the transmission of a transitory state having no generality, contains the possibility of having been for the purpose of demonstrating its permissibility. Thus in this action [of fastening the hands], it will revert, as it states in Fath al-Qadir, to the conventional location in the event of intending glorification when standing, the convention in what is observed thereof is that it is below the navel, so we hold this opinion in this posture with respect to a man, as opposed to a woman, because she places [the hands] on her chest because it is more concealing for her, so is more appropriate for her.”
And in al-Durr al-Mukhtar (1:508): “And the woman and hermaphrodite place the hands beneath the chest.”
And in Radd al-Muhtar: “This is found in some copies of al-Munyah and in some of them: ‘on her breasts.’ It says in al-Hilyah: ‘It is better to say: On her chest, as the vast majority said, not: On her breasts, even if placing them on the chest entails that, in that part of the wrist of each hand falls on the breast, but this is not the intent of the instruction.” I say: Thus, this issue is from that which women differ from men.
Furthermore, know that it appears in Sunan Abi Dawud, and he was silent over it: Muhammad ibn Qudamah ibn A‘yun narrated to us from Abu Badr from Abu Talut ‘Abd al-Salam from Ibn Jarir al-Dabbi from his father, he said: “I saw ‘Ali (Allah be pleased with him) holding his left hand with his right hand on the wrist above the navel.” This does not contradict the hadith in the text narrated from him, because harmonisation is possible in that both of them are permissible, and you know the statement of al-Tirmidhi that “all of this is allowed according to the scholars.” However the hadith of the text, because it is verbal, is given preference over it, because speech always has priority over action. And Allah (Exalted is He) knows best.

The Exegesis of His (Exalted is He) Statement: “So pray to your Lord and sacrifice (wa-nhar).”


As for what al-Bayhaqi narrated in his Sunan from Ibn ‘Abbas (Allah be pleased with them) about Allah’s (Great and Glorious is He) statement: “So pray to your Lord and sacrifice (wa-nhar),” (Qur’an 108:2), he said: “[wa-nhar means] placing the right hand on the left hand in Salah near the throat (nahr),” in its chain is Rawh ibn al-Musayyib, who is abandoned. Ibn Hibban said: “He narrates fabrications from trustworthy narrators. Narration from him is impermissible.” Ibn ‘Adi said: “His hadiths are not preserved.” And likewise what he narrated from ‘Ali (Allah be pleased with him) with a similar [wording] to this [narration from Ibn ‘Abbas], as ‘Allamah Ibn al-Turkumani said: “In its chain is inconsistency,” and al-Hafiz Ibn Kathir said in his Tafsir: “It was said the intent of wa-nhar is placing the right hand over the left hand below the throat (nahr). This was narrated from ‘Ali (Allah be pleased with him) and is inauthentic.” This is found in al-Ta‘liq al-Hasan (1:49).
I‘la’ al-Sunan, Idarat al-Qur’an wa l-‘Ulum al-Islamiyyah: Karachi, 1427 H, 2:189-200
[Footnotes]
1. The author will mention the disagreement narrated from Imam Malik a little further down.
2. Outwardly, it would appear Ibn Khuzaymah stated explicitly this hadith is authentic, but the reality is not so, as he only related it through the route of Mu’ammal ibn Isma‘il and he did not comment on it with anything. See Sahih Ibn Khuzaymah (1:243, no. 489). Al-Shawkani did not have Sahih Ibn Khuzaymah in his possession as its copies had depleted long before him, and he transmitted this hadith from the Talkhis of Hafiz or another book, and Hafiz often says in his Talkhis: “Ibn Khuzaymah declared it sahih,” and no declaration of authenticity is found in his Sahih. Probably his intent was that Ibn Khuzaymah’s inclusion of it in his Sahih is a proof that the hadith is sahih according to him. However, the verifiers agree that mere citation is not sufficient for the authenticity of the hadith, as al-Suyuti said explicitly in Tadrib al-Rawi; especially since we know that Ibn Khuzaymah transmitted it through the route of Mu’ammal ibn Isma‘il who has been criticised, as will come, so the grading of authenticity is not an option for us.
Nasir al-Din al-Albani said under this hadith in his footnotes to Ibn Khuzaymah: “Its chain is weak, because Mu’ammal, that is Ibn Isma‘il, had a bad memory. However the hadith is sahih and has been transmitted through other routes with its meaning.” If only I knew, from where [did he come to] this conclusion of authenticity?! And where are those other routes that support it? Ibn al-Qayyim stated explicitly in I‘lam al-Muwaqqi‘in that no one besides Mu’ammal ibn Isma‘il said “on his chest,” as will come in the text of the book. (Mufti Taqi Usmani)
3. I [Mufti Taqi Usmani] say: Abu Dawud al-Tayalisi also transmitted it in his Musnad (p. 137 no. 1020) and Ibn Hibban through the route of Shu‘bah from Salamah ibn Kuhayl from Hujr ibn ‘Alqamah from Wa’il (Mawarid al-Zam’an, p. 124, no. 447), both of them without this addition. And Ibn Khuzaymah transmitted it through the route of Ibn Fudayl from ‘Asim ibn Kulayb and through the route of Ibn Idris also, without this addition.
4. While, Simak ibn Harb is isolated in [narrating] this hadith of Hulb, and more than one [critic] weakened him, and al-Nasa’i said: “When he is isolated in a source, he will not be a proof because he used to be dictated to [with the claim that certain narrations were his] and he would accept,” as mentioned in Mizan al-I‘tidal (2:233). Moreover, [the hadith] comes through the route of Sufyan whose position it was to place the hands below the navel as has passed. (Mufti Taqi Usmani)
5. I [Mufti Taqi Usmani] say: I have reservation about this for two reasons: first, al-Hafiz compiled Taqrib al-Tahdhib after Tahdhib al-Tahdhib as he stated explicitly in the introduction of al-Taqrib, so how can the statement of the author ‘he retracted from it’ be accurate? Secondly, that which al-Hafiz stated in al-Tahdhib is that ‘Alqamah did narrate from his father, not that he heard from him, and there is a clear difference between the two, so it is possible to reconcile between the two statements of al-Hafiz that the thing affirmed in al-Tahdhib is narration alone without audition and the thing negated in al-Taqrib is audition. Hence, drawing evidence from the statement of al-Hafiz for the audition of ‘Alqamah from his father is problematic. Yes, it is established by other evidences which the author produced after this.



 








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