Thursday, 30 July 2015

COMMENTATORS OF THE QURAN ON THE MOSQUE BUILT OVER THE GRAVE OF ASHAB AL-KAHF

COMMENTATORS OF THE QURAN ON THE MOSQUE BUILT OVER THE GRAVE OF ASHAB AL-KAHF

Masjid al kahf

[Quran 18:21]

 فَقَالُوا ابْنُوا عَلَيْهِمْ بُنْيَانًا ۖ رَبُّهُمْ أَعْلَمُ بِهِمْ ۚ قَالَ الَّذِينَ غَلَبُوا عَلَىٰ أَمْرِهِمْ لَنَتَّخِذَنَّ عَلَيْهِمْ مَسْجِدًا

they said, ‘Build a building over them. Their Lord knows them best.’ Those who had the say in their matter said, ‘We will set up a place of worship over them.’

________

Abd Allah ibn Abbas (d. 68H)  رضي الله عنه , the companion and paternal cousin of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم , comments:
(they said) i.e. the disbelievers said: (Build over them a building) a church because they are followers of our religion; (their Lord knoweth best concerning them. Those who won their point said) those whose argument did not prevail, i.e. the believers: (We verily shall build a place of worship over them) because they are followers of our religion; their difference being about this point.

Al-Tha’alibi (d. 427H) quotes Ibn Abbas رضي الله عنه :
قال ابن عباس: تنازعوا في البنيان والمسجد، قال المسلمون: نبني عليهم مسجداً، لأنهم على ديننا، وقال المشركون: نبني عليهم بنياناً؛ لأنهم من أهل سنّتنا.
Ibn Abbas said: They disputed over the building, and the mosque. The Muslims said: Build over them a mosque, because they are people of our religion. The polytheists said: Build over them a building, because they are from our tradition
He also comments on the part of the verse:
{ لَنَتَّخِذَنَّ عَلَيْهِمْ مَّسْجِداً } ، وقيل: الذين تغلبوا على أمرهم، وهم المؤمنون.
{We will set up a mosque over them} It is said: Those who overcame in the matter, they are the believers.

Al-Baghawi (d.516H)  also quotes Ibn Abbas رضي الله عنه :
 قال ابن عباس: يتنازعون في البنيان، فقال: المسلمون: نبني عليهم مسجداً يصلي فيه الناس لأنهم على ديننا، وقال المشركون: نبني عليهم بنياناً لأنهم من أهل نسبنا.
Ibn Abbas ( رضي الله عنه) said: They disputed regarding the building. The Muslims said: Build over them a mosque where people pray for they are the people of our religion. The Polytheists said: Build over them a building for they are of our lineage.

Ibn al-Jawzi (d. 597) quotes Ibn Abbas  رضي الله عنه :
أنهم تنازعوا في البنيان، والمسجد. فقال المسلمون: نبني عليهم مسجداً، لأنهم على ديننا؛ وقال المشركون: نبني عليهم بنياناً، لأنهم من أهل سُنَّتنا، قاله ابن عباس.
They disputed over the building, and the mosque. The Muslims said: Build over them a mosque, because they are people of our religion. The polytheists said: Build over them a building, because they are from our tradition, said Ibn Abbas.
Ibn al-Jawzi also commented on the part of the verse {Those who had the say in their matter }:
قال المفسرون: وهم الملك وأصحابه المؤمنون اتخذوا عليهم مسجداً
The mufasiroon said: They are the King and his companions the believers, they built over them a mosque.

Al-Khazin (d.725) quotes Ibn Abbas رضي الله عنه:
قال ابن عباس: في البنيان فقال المسلمون نبني عليهم مسجداً يصلي فيه الناس لأنهم على ديننا وقال المشركون نبني بنياناً لأنهم على ملتنا
Ibn Abbas said: In building, the Muslims said: Build over them a mosque for the people to pray because they are of our religion. The polytheists said: Build over them a building because they are of our creed/belief.
Imam al-Tabari also quotes a comment of Ibn Abbas on those who built the mosque as :  يعنـي عدوّهم (Meaning their enemies). But here it does not indicate whether they are believers or not. It probably just means that those who built the mosque were enemies of those who argued in wanting to construct a building.  Nonetheless, we have quoted from so many mufassirs above the clear opinion of Ibn Abbas رضي الله عنه.

The Tabi’i, Abdullah ibn Obaid ibn Ameer, comments on the verse, as quoted by Imam al-Tabari:
حدثنا ابن حميد، قال: ثنا سلـمة، عن عبد العزيز بن أبـي روّاد، عن عبد الله بن عبـيد بن عمير، قال: عمَّى الله علـى الذين أعثرهم علـى أصحاب الكهف مكانهم، فلـم يهتدوا، فقال الـمشركون: نبنـي علـيهم بنـياناً، فإنهم أبناء آبـائنا، ونعبد الله فـيها، وقال الـمسلـمون: بل نـحن أحقّ بهم، هم منا، نبنـي علـيهم مسجداً نصلـي فـيه، ونعبد الله فـيه.
Abdullah ibn Obaid ibn Ameer said: “……..The polytheists said: We will build a building over them, they are the sons of our fathers, and worship God in it, and the Muslims said: We have more right over them, we will surely build a mosque over them to pray therein and worship Allah in it.

Muqatil Ibn Sulayman (d. 150H) in his tafsir, comments:
قال بعضهم: نبني عليهم بنياناً، وقال بعضهم، وهم المؤمنون: { قَالَ ٱلَّذِينَ غَلَبُواْ عَلَىٰ أَمْرِهِمْ لَنَتَّخِذَنَّ عَلَيْهِمْ مَّسْجِداً } [آية: 21]، فبنوا مسجداً على باب الكهف.
Some of them said: Build over them a building, and some of them said, they are the believers: {Those who had the say in their matter said, ‘We will set up a place of worship over them.’}, they built a masjid at the door of the cave. 

Abu Ishaq al-Zajaj (d. 311H) and Abu al-Layth al-Samarkandi (d. 375H), comments on the verse, as mentioned in the tafsir of al-Samarkandi:
فقال المؤمنون فيما بينهم نبني مسجداً وقالت النصارى نبني كنيسة فغلب عليهم المسلمون وبنوا المسجد فذلك قوله تعالى: { فَقَالُواْ ٱبْنُواْ عَلَيْهِمْ بُنْيَـٰنًا } أي: مسجداً { رَّبُّهُمْ أَعْلَمُ بِهِمْ } أي: عالم بهم { قَالَ ٱلَّذِينَ غَلَبُواْ عَلَىٰ أَمْرِهِمْ } يعني: الذين كانوا على دين أصحاب الكهف وهم المؤمنون { لَنَتَّخِذَنَّ عَلَيْهِمْ مَّسْجِدًا } قال الزجاج: فيه دليل أنه ظهر أمرهم وغلب الذين أقروا بالبعث على غيرهم لأنهم اتخذوا مسجداً والمسجد يكون للمسلمين.
The believers said they will build a mosque over them and the Christians said they will build a Church over them, the Muslim overcome them and built a masjid. Almighty said: {they said, ‘Build a building over them} meaning: mosque {Their Lord knows them best} meaning: their world {Those who had the say in their matter} meaning: Those who are on the religion of Ashab al-Kahf and they are the believers {said, ‘We will set up a masjid over them} (Abu Ishaq) al-Zajaj said: This is proof that, when the matter become apparent,  the (believers) became triumphant and others then acknowledged the resurrection,  because they have taken a mosque and the mosque is for the believers. 
The commentators of the Quran – Makki bin Abi Talib (d. 437H), al-Wahidi (d. 468H), Ibn Atiyya al-Andalusi (d. 546H), Abu Hayyan (d. 754H), al-Fayruzabadi (d. 817H),  al-Mahalli (d. 864H) &al-Suyuti (d. 911H), Ebussuud (d. 951H), Ibn Ajiba (d. 1224H), al-Sawi (d. 1241H), al-Shawkani(d. 1250H) – all said the people who built the mosque over the graves of Ashab al-Kahf were the believers.
Imam al-Maturidi (d. 333H) in his tafsir, writes:
ثم قوله: { لَنَتَّخِذَنَّ عَلَيْهِمْ مَّسْجِداً } يحتمل بناء المسجد عليهم إكراماً لهم وإعظاماً؛ ليذكروهم في ذلك المكان على قرب منهم، على ما ظهر عندهم من إكرام الله إياهم.
أو يتخذون مسجداً لعبادة أنفسهم، ليعبدوا الله على قرب منهم؛ ليسألوا من بركتهم ونحوه، والله أعلم.
Then said: {We will set up a masjid over them} Build over them a masjid to honor them and venerate them, and remember them in a place near them, regarding what appeared of the honor of God on them.
Or take a mosque for themselves to worship in, to worship God near them,  to ask of their barakah (blessings) and the likes, Allah knows best.

Al-Zamakshari (d. 538H) writes:
{ قَالَ ٱلَّذِينَ غَلَبُواْ عَلَىٰ أَمْرِهِمْ } من المسلمين وملكهم وكانوا أولى بهم وبالبناء عليهم { لَنَتَّخِذَنَّ } على باب الكهف { مَّسْجِدًا } يصلي فيه المسلمون ويتبركون بمكانهم.
{Those who had the say in their matter} they are the Muslims and their king, and they were the first to build over them {We will set up} at the door of the cave {a mosque} for Muslims to pray therein and seek the barakah (blessings) of that place.

Imam al-Razi (d. 606H) writes:
{ قَالَ ٱلَّذِينَ غَلَبُواْ عَلَىٰ أَمْرِهِمْ } قيل المراد به الملك المسلم، وقيل: أولياء أصحاب الكهف، وقيل: رؤساء البلد: { لَنَتَّخِذَنَّ عَلَيْهِمْ مَّسْجِدًا } نعبد الله فيه ونستبقي آثار أصحاب الكهف بسبب ذلك المسجد،
{Those who prevailed over their affair} this refers to the Muslim King, it is also said: they are the friends of Ashab al Kahf, and it is also said: They are the leaders of the town: {We will surely build a Mosque over them} so that we worship Allah in it and preserve the relics of the Ashab al-Kahf by means of this mosque.

Muhyi al-Din Ibn al-Arabi (d. 638H) comments:
{ فقالوا ابنوا عليهم بنياناً } أي: فلما توفوا قالوا ذلك كالخانقاهات والمشاهد والمزارات المبنية على الكمل، المقربين من الأنبياء والأولياء كإبراهيم ومحمد وعلى سائر الأنبياء والأولياء عليهم الصلاة والسلام. { ربّهم أعلم بهم } من كلام أتباعهم من أممهم والمقتدين بهم، أي: هم أجلّ وأعظم شأناً من أن يعرفهم غيرهم، الموحدون الهالكون في الله، المتحققون به، فهو أعلم بهم كما قال تعالى: ” أوليائي تحت قبائي، لا يعرفهم غيري ” { قال الذين غلبوا على أمرهم } من أصحابهم والذين يلون أمرهم تبركاً بهم وبمكانهم { لنتخذنّ عليهم مسجداً } يصلى فيه.
{they said, ‘Build a building over them} i.e.: when they died, they said they we will build Mashahid and Mazarat on them,  close to the Ambiya and Awliya, Ibrahim and Muhammed and other Prophets and saints, May peace be on all of them…………..{Said those who had the say in their matter} among their friends and those who ordered taking blessings from them and their place {We will set up a masjid over them} to pray in it.

Imam an-Nasafi (d. 710H) writes:
{ قَالَ ٱلَّذِينَ غَلَبُواْ عَلَىٰ أَمْرِهِمْ } من المسلمين وملكهم وكانوا أولى بهم وبالبناء عليهم { لَنَتَّخِذَنَّ عَلَيْهِمْ } على باب الكهف { مَّسْجِدًا } يصلي فيه المسلمون ويتبركون بمكانهم.
{Those who had the say in their matter} they are the Muslims and their king, and they were the first to build over them {We will set up} at the door of the cave {a mosque} for Muslims to pray therein and seek the barakah (blessings) of that place.

Imam Abdal Qadir al-Jilani (d. 713H) writes:
 { فَقَالُواْ ٱبْنُواْ عَلَيْهِمْ بُنْيَاناً } قال المسلمون: نحن نبني عليهم مسجداً، وقال الكافكرون نحن نبني عليهم كنسيةً، وكلا الفريقين ليسوا عالمين بكفرهم وإيامنهم، بل { رَّبُّهُمْ } الذي رثاهم بأنواع التربية ورحمهم بأنواع الرحمة { أَعْلَمُ بِهِمْ } وبحالهم فأمرُهم موكولُ إلى الله مفوض إليه، ثم لما تمادى النزاع بينهم وتطاول جدالهم { قَالَ ٱلَّذِينَ غَلَبُواْ عَلَىٰ أَمْرِهِمْ } بالقدرة الحجة، وهم الموحدون المسلمون { لَنَتَّخِذَنَّ } ونبنين { عَلَيْهِمْ مَّسْجِداً } [الكهف: 21] نتوجه فيه لله، ونتبرك بهم ونجعله محل الحاجات وقضاء المناجاة، فاتخذوه وجعلوه مرجعاً يرجع إليه الأقاصي والأداني.
{they said, ‘Build a building over them} The Muslims said: We will build over them a mosque, and the disbelievers said: We will build over them a Church. (……) {Those who had the say in their matter} by ability of argument, they are the monotheists the Muslims {We will set up} and build {a masjid over them} where we turn to God, and their tabaruk (blessings), and make it a place for needs and spending intimacy/communing, …

Ibn Juzayy al-Arnouti (d. 741H) writes:
{ فَقَالُواْ ٱبْنُواْ عَلَيْهِمْ بُنْيَٰناً } أي على باب كهفهم إما ليطمس آثارهم أو ليحفظهم ويمنعهم ممن يريد أخذهم أو أخذ تربتهم تبركاً، وإما ليكون علماً على كهفهم ليعرف به.
{ قَالَ ٱلَّذِينَ غَلَبُواْ عَلَىٰ أَمْرِهِمْ } قيل: يعني الولاة وقيل: يعني المسلمين لأنهم كانوا أحق بهم من الكفار، فبنوا على باب الكهف مسجداً لعبادة الله.
{they said, ‘Build a building over them} at the door of the cave either to obscure their remains or to protect them and prevent them being taken or who wants to take from their soil barakah (blessings), and either to be a note on the cave to know them.
{Those who had the say in their matter} It is said: The king and it is said: The Muslims because they were more deserving than the disbelievers,  They built at the door of the cave a Masjid to worship Allah.

Ibn Adil al-Dimashqi al-Hanbali (d. 880H) writes:
 { لَنَتَّخِذَنَّ عَلَيْهِم مَّسْجِداً } يعبد الله فيه، ونستبقي آثار اصحاب الكهف بسبب ذلك المسجد
{We will set up a masjid over them}  so that we worship Allah in it, and preserve the relics of the Ashab al-Kahf by means of this mosque.

Imam Shihab ud-Din al-Khafaji (d. 1069H) in his Hashiya al-Baydawi, writes :
وكونه مسجداً يدل على جواز البناء على قبور الصلحاء ونحوهم كما أشار إليه في الكشاف وجواز الصلاة في ذلك البناء،
And being a mosque indicates that it permissible to build on graves of Saliheen and the likes as pointed out in (the book) al-Kashaaf and it is permitted to pray in the building. 

Ismail Haqqi (d. 1127H) writes:
{ قال الذين غلبوا على امرهم } من المسلمين وملكهم { لتتخذن عليهم مسجدا } اى لنبنين على باب كهفهم مسجدا يصلى فيه المسلمون ويتبركون بمكانهم
{Said those who had the say in their matter} the Muslims and their King {We will set up a masjid over them} i.e., build on the door of the cave a masjid to pray therein and seek tabaruk (blessings) from the place. 

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